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Transcript of Narrative Writing
- Setting: Involves the orientation of the story which sets the scene, describing where and when the story takes place.
- Main character: "The person or animal that does most of the action in the story" (Stevens, Van Meter & Warcholak, 2010, p. 11).
- An initiating event and reaction: "The characters are presented with a problem and solving that problem becomes the goal of the story" (Stevens, Van Meter & Warcholak, 2010, p. 8).
- Solution attempts and outcomes: "The character may encounter obstacles that lead to failed attempts and the character cycles through another attempt to attain the goal" (Stevens, Van Meter & Warcholak, 2010, p. 8).
- The ending reaction: The conclusion of the story in which we discover how the characters react and feel about the outcome of events. Elements of a Narrative Critiquing the Curriculum
in light of research Resources Highlight best teaching practice
Australian Curriculum: Year 2 English
Text structure and organisation (ACELA1463)
Expressing and developing ideas (ACELA1469)
Examining Literature (ACELT1591)
Responding to literature (ACELT1589)
Interpreting, analysing, evaluating (ACELY1668) Narrative components within
the Australian Curriculum What Research Says By teaching children one element at a time, we are able to provide them with guided practice on that element so they can gain a comprehensive understanding before being taught the next element of the story structure (Stevens, Van Meter & Warcholak, 2010). Developing Student's knowledge of
Narrative Stories Jacqui Dowie Narrative stories share "a common set of elements"
(Stevens, Van Meter & Warcholak, 2010, p. 8). Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (2011). The Australian Curriculum. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Curriculum/F-10#level=2
Dymocks, S (2007). Comprehension Strategy Instruction: Teaching Narrative Text Structure Awareness. The Reading Teacher, 61(2), 161-167. doi: 10./1598/RT.61.2.6
Pappas, C. C. (1993). Is Narrative "Primary"? Some insights from Kindergarteners' pretend readings of stories and information books. Journal of Reading Behaviour, 25(1), 97-129. Retrieved from http://jlr.sagepub.com/content/25/1/97.short
Sanacore, J. (1991). Expository and Narrative Text: Balancing Young Children's Reading Experiences. Childhood Education, 67(4), 211-214. doi: 10.1080/00094056.1991.10520795
Steven, R. J., Van Meter, P., & Warcholak, N. D. (2010). The Effects of Explicitly Teaching Story Structure to Primary Grade Children. Journal of Literacy Research, 42, 159-198. doi: 10.1080/10862961003796173 Narrative texts usually follow a structure referred to as story grammar (Sanacore, 1991). Story Grammar Story grammars are a set of rules which serve to organize the important elements of a story into logical structure (Dymock, 2007). "Research suggests that comprehension of narrative text is better when the text is organised to a well-known story grammar" (Dymock, 2007, p. 161). Explicit Instructional Methods There is a need for explicit "instructional methods that target the" basic structure of narratives in order to help "children who cannot yet" make sense of text (Stevens, Van Meter & Warcholak, 2010, p. 6). "Research indicates that many students require explicit instruction in how to comprehend narrative text" (Dymock, 2007, p. 166). Teaching one element at a time Questioning Who was the main character in the story? How do you know?
Where does the story take place?
What was the problem in the story?
How did the characters attempt to solve the problem?
How did the characters finally solve the problem?" The goal of these questions "is not for children to memorize definitions of story elements and
simply apply this knowledge to analyze a story" but instead to apply their understanding to story writing (Stevens, Van Meter & Warcholak, 2010, p. 189). Developing an understanding of text purposes is essential in order for children to understand that the aim of written language is to use "words to create a world of meaning" (Pappas, 1993, p. 99).
Research supports the Curriculum's importance of text structure by stating, "although a book provides pictorial content, the characteristic generic structure of each text itself has a major role in supplying the clues to access meanings to that text" (Pappas, 1993, p.100). Research supports the Curriculum's notion that visual representations of texts are just as important as the written words.