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Elements of Rhetoric
What is Rhetoric?
is the art of discourse, an art that aims to improve the capability of writers or speakers to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
It is the collective term for words, expressions, technical terms which are intelligible to the members of specific group, social circle or profession.
Succeeding sentences should be consistent in tense, number, mood and voice
Direct words have immediate effect in such a way that there can be no doubt about their meaning. In such a case, the writer is allowed to use discriminate euphemisms.
Words with pleasant connotations are used instead of those considered to be too frank or too painful.
1. Use words that are appropriate to the communication situation. There should be no shifting from formal to informal or vice-verse.
2. Expect for legal papers, the adjective said and aforementioned should be dropped.
It is the use of the most specific and concrete words in sentence
The word will depend on the familiarity of the writer on the topic develop. Avoid the use of such words they lessen the weight of the composition.
Literary Uses of Cliché
1. The natural prosodic flow of the cliché is pleasing to the ears.
2. Stored for fast access in the right hemisphere of the brain, thus giving them properly rapid convergence in sentence comprehension.
3. Many of them are mini-metaphor and the meaning of each is probably different to each listener.
Is a word or description used with such regularity or predictability that interpretation is a question of recognizing convention as opposed to literal meaning.
Variation of sentences may be in length and complexity. Repeating the same sentence pattern in succeeding sentences should be avoided. The use of sentences of the same length in succeeding sentences should be avoided
Words that are concrete are particular and definite rather than general and vague
A needless use of words, an outright repetition of meaning is redundancy. Most redundancies are modifiers providing “additional” meanings to words that already carry those meanings. Some are needless quantifiers. Some are repetitions of words that acronyms stand for; some are verbose
Type of redundancy consists of modifiers to add meaning to words that already have meaning.
Figure of Speech
Two Categories of figurative language
Figures of speech
(Rhetorical figures or schemes)
Which deviate from normal language in order of words(syntax)
Figures of thought (tropes)
Derivation from common usage mainly in the meaning of words
Rhetorical figures of Speech
Figures Based on Likeness
Figure Based on other relations
Figures Based on
It goes without saying that…
Insignificant and Unimportant
All time record
Type of redundancy in which the same ideas are repeated using different words.
Best ever, biggest ever, fastest ever, etc
Companies and business
Cost and expenses
Each and Every
First and Foremost
The topic sentence serves as the theme for the points raised in a paragraph. A pattern of themes contributes to the method of development for the text as a whole.
The sentence theme, which is the information before the main verb in a sentence, usually tells us what the sentence is about, or what the writer wants the reader to focus on. It is a signpost saying to the reader, "This is what I want you to pay attention to".
Concreteness: It means that message should be specific instead of general. Miaunderstanding of words creates problems for both parties ( sender and receiver).
Non concrete :
Majority of the people living in the outskirts of town continue to fight against the unprecedented oil price hike
15 thousand citizens living in the outskirts of town continue to fight against the unprecedented oil price hike
The family is saving a percentage of their family income
The family is saving 10 thousand pesos of their family income
A small number of followers attended the rally of the incumbent mayor
10 thousand followers attended the rally of the incumbent mayor
Consistency in Tense:
Present Simple Present
Past Simple Past
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Continuous
Future Using the Simple Present
Using the Present Continuous
Using the Present Perfect Simple
Using the Present Perfect Continuous
Using going to
Consistency in Number:
Subject-Verb agreement takes place. Plural and Singular
Consistency in Mood:
Indicative Mood states an actuality or fact.
• We will go to see a movie this Sunday.
• I’ll follow you.
Imperative Mood makes a request.
• Let’s go to see a movie this weekend!
• Please stop bugging me!
Subjunctive Mood expresses a doubtful condition (contrary to fact) and is often used with an "if" clause.
• If I were you, I wouldn’t buy a house.
• I wish I were more organized.
Consistency in Voice:
Active voice describes a sentence where the subject performs the action stated by the verb.
passive voice sentences, the subject is acted upon by the verb.
Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah. (active)
The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes. (passive)