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Post-conflict Peacebuilding in Libya

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Nadine Lainer

on 14 April 2015

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Transcript of Post-conflict Peacebuilding in Libya

Post-conflict Peacebuilding in Libya
Background
Economic and Social Reconstruction
Good governance
Achieving Security
Justice and Reconciliation
Background
Achieving Security
Sources
Discussion
Justice and Reconciliation
Economic and Social Reconstruction
Lead up to the 2011 Libyan conflict
What's next?
Governance
National Transitional Council
Recognized as the legitimate representative of Libya

Tasked with organizing elections and creating a government

Elections
July 7th, 2012, Libyans voted in their first parliamentary elections since the end of the rule of Muammar Gaddafi.

Deterioration of Good Governance
“The period of transition to democracy is in many ways one of the most dangerous and fragile of all.”


Gareth Evans
2014 Conflict
Operation Dignity dissolves the GNC

Islamic forces push back with Operation Dawn
Situation Today
Two rival governments competing for legitimacy
UN has offered to support peace talks

Libya's Security Challenges
End of Qaddafi's Iron Fist Rule
Weak Interim Government
Militias
Weapons, Illegal Arms Trade and Uncontrolled Borders
The scramble for power
Socioeconomic factors that led to Revolution
UN/US Sanctions against Libya prior to Conflict
Economic and social challenges post-conflict
UN Sanctions against Libya post-conflict
Importance of Hydrocarbon (Oil) sector
• Sanctions pursuant to Resolution 1970:
arms embargo
travel ban
asset freeze on designated individuals and/or entities
measures in relation to attempts to illicitly export crude oil
Exemptions from asset freeze for:
Humanitarian needs
Fuel, electricity and water strictly for civilian uses
Resuming Libyan production and sale of hydrocarbons
Establishing, operating or strengthening institutions of civilian government and civilian public infrastructure
Facilitating the resumption of banking sector operations, including to support or facilitate international trade with Libya
Dealing with the past
Transitional Justice
1) Discovery of truth
2) Hold accountable those responsible for violations
3) Redress for victims
4) Institutional Reform to prevent recurring violations
5) Ultimately, National Reconciliation
The Libyan Conflict/Revolution/Civil War
The Intervention
UNSMIL - UN Support Mission in Libya
UN Security Council Statements
NYU Center on International Cooperation:
The International Role in Libya's Transition
Brookings Doha Center:
Reconstructing Libya: Stability through National Reconciliation
International Peace Institute:
North Africa: New Challenges, Old Regimes and Regional Security
Congressional Research Service:
Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy
Strategic Studies Institute/U.S. Army War College:
State-Building Challenges in a Post-Revolution Libya

IMF/Middle East and Central Asia Department:
Libya beyond the Revolution: Challenges and Opportunities
African Economic Outlook:
Libya 2014
atlanticcouncil.org
libyaintelligence.org
juancole.com
motherjones.com
Vice News
fragilestates.org
Democracy now
Human Rights Watch
Role of the International Community
1. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
2. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
3. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
4. World Health Organization (WHO)
5. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS)
6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
7. United Nations Organization for Drug and Crime (UNODC)
8. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)
9. United Nations Education Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO)
10. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
11. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
12. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees(UNHCR)
13. World Food Programme (WFP)
14. United Nations Mine Action Services (UNMAS)
15. United Nations Office for Project Services(UNOPS)
Integration as
a solution?
Where is the West now?
Arab Intervention
Geopolitical Implications
Full transcript