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Medieval Architecture: Churches, Cathedrals and Castles

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by

Val Woldman

on 8 November 2016

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Transcript of Medieval Architecture: Churches, Cathedrals and Castles

Romanesque Pilgrimage Churches
-after 1000 AD
-housed relics from Crusades in reliquaries
-rounded arches
-Latin cross-shaped
-Norman influence (all stone)
-massive towers
-portals: separated secular from
divine realm
Abbey Church

-based on simple basilica
-contained shrines or relics
-cross-shaped (cruciform) with nave and transept
-monastery or convent under abbot or abbess
Churches, Cathedrals and Castles
*Romanesque style
*Gothic style
*God as master architect
*Castle as medieval fortress

Romanesque Church Plan
-portal at west, altar at east symbolizing movement from dark (sin) to light(salvation)
-nave
-transept
-crossing
-altar
-apse
-choir
-side aisles
-no clerestory
-gallery
Romanesque Church Diagram
ambulatory- walkway at the east around the altar
apse- rounded area housing the altar
transept-
nave-
500-1400 A.D.
Abbey of Cluny
-Cluny, France
-beginning of pilgrimage churches
-Built in 1oth-12th centuries
-Romanesque style
Abbey of Jumieges near Rouen, France
Gothic Cathedrals
1170-1270
Medieval Architecture
Gothic Cathedral
-represent a break from the past
-soared upwards toward heaven
-larger focal point
-often called the "French style" since that is where it began
-administrative seat of bishop
-honored one or more saints
-sculpture
-stained glass
-large enough to hold entire town
Chartres Cathedral
St. Denis, France
Tympanum, Scenes from the Life of the Virgin Mary
Right tympanum of the Royal Portal, west facade, Chartres Cathedral
clerestory
Pointed arches
Gargoyles
waterspouts designed to ward off evil and drain water from the roof
Flying buttresses
-housed Mary's tunic
Royal Portal at Chartres
kings and queens of Old Testament
Relics
-pieces of saints or the holy family
-shroud of Tourin
-pieces of true cross
-St. Thomas at Canterbury
-Mary's tunic at Chartres
Reliquaries
-ornamented containers for relics
Castle Diagram
Stained glass
-stories in picture form for the illiterate
-light was symbol of Jesus
rose window
lancet window
Abbot Sugar: "That which is united in splendor, radiates in splendor/And the magnificent work inundated with the new light shines."- St. Denis ambulatory inscription
Murder hole
Siena Cathedral Il Duomo
San Gimignano
Tenuta di Spannochia
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