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Transcript of Biblical References
The novel The Lord of the Flies has many biblical references that show the moral and physical struggles that men face in the bible with free will that mimics the struggles that the boys face on the island.
Garden of Eden
The island is equivalent to Garden of Eden.
What was pure and good became evil and corrupt
The corruption occurred when the boys ignored the rules of their old society
Jack represents Eve. He influenced the other boys to be savage
The temptation was the free-will on the island
Cain and Abel
Lord of the Flies : Biblical References 1
(Page 29) “They knew very well why he hadn't, because of the enormity of the knife descending and cutting into living flesh because of the unbearable blood.”
(Page 60) "…The pleasures of morning, the bright sun, the whelming sea and sweet air, as a time when play was good and life so full that hope was not necessary and therefore forgotten.”
(Page 33) "This is a good island. Until the grown-ups come to fetch us, we'll have fun."
(Page 53) "They talk and scream. The littleuns. Even some of the others. As if- As if it wasn't a good island."
(Page 42) “I agree with Ralph. We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all, we’re not savages. We’re English; and the English are the best at everything. So we’ve got to do the right things.”
(Page 101) "I know about people. I know about me. And him. He can't hurt you: but if you stand out of the way he'd hurt the next thing. And that's me"
(Page 139) "Jack turned to the hunters. 'He's not a hunter. He'd never got us meat. He isn't a prefect and we don't know anything about him. He just gives orders and expects people to obey him for nothing.
(Page 158) ”This is ridiculous. You know perfectly well you’ll only meet me down there-- so don’t try to escape.”
Simon encourages the other boys about being rescued and stays positive
He is the only one who helps and contributes for the common good
Simon is one of the only boys who are aware of what is actually taking place on the island
Simon is the first to suggest that perhaps the beast/monsters were the boys themselves.
Simon also saw Beelzebub
(Page 121) "Simon nodded. All the same. You'll get back all right. I think so, anyway. Some of the strain had gone from Ralph's body."
(Page 57 ) "Simon found for them the fruit that they could not reach, pulled off the choicest from the foliage, passed them back down to the endless, outstretched hands. When he had satisfied them he paused and looked round."
Goldings metaphors can all be read as orthodox and and traditional Christian statements about nature of man. Each metaphor underlines man's depravity, pride, the futility of his reason. The novels are permeated with the sense of mans sin and guilt, and the images depict these qualities in conventional christian terms.
James Gindin "Gimmick and Metaphor in the Novels of William Golding," in his post war British fiction : New Accents and Attitudes (originally published by the University of California)
(Matthew 8: 28-34) “When he arrived at the other side in the region of the Gadarenes,two demon-possessed men coming
from the tombs met him. They were so violent that no one could pass that way.“What do you want with us, Son of God?”
they shouted. “Have you come here to torture us before the appointed time?” Some distance from them a large herd of pigs
was feeding. The demons begged Jesus, “If you drive us out, send us into the herd of pigs.” He said to them, “Go!” So they
came out and went into the pigs, and the whole herd rushed down the steep bank into the lake and died in the water.”
Known as the devil in scripture
Beelzebub is the symbol of the deterioration of society
Beelzebub is also known to "drive out demons"
Beelzebub relates to the selfishness and greed of the boys
-Lord of the Flies
by William Golding
-Contemporary Literary Criticism (Novel 2)
-New International Version Bible
Jack and Ralph had respect for each other like Cain and Abel did.
The relationship between Jack and Ralph mirrors that of Cain and Abel.
Jack grew jealous of Ralph for gaining favor with the group
Cain was jealous of Abel for gaining favor with God
Contemporary Literary Criticism Novel 2 Page 166
Lord of the Flies is Goldings most novelistic work of fiction. It is also the only recent novel of imaginative originality that I am aware of which implies that society, insane and self destroying as it undeniably is, is necessary.
-Steven Marcus, "The Novel Again," in Partisan Review (copyright 1962 by Partisan Review, Inc.) Spring 1962.
Leviticus 11:7-8 "And the pig, because it parts the hoof and is cloven-footed but does not chew the cud, is unclean to you. You shall not eat any of their flesh, and you shall not touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you."
The original sin is referred back to the story of Adam and Eve
The killing of the very first pig represents original sin
God said the pig is unclean
The original sin was the trigger for more sin
(Page 96) “'What I mean is… maybe it’s only us.' 'Nuts!' That was from Piggy, shocked out of decorum. Simon went on. 'We could be sort of...”
(Mark 5: 35-39) “While Jesus was still speaking, some people came from the house of Jairus, the synagogue leader. “Your daughter is dead,” they said. “Why bother the teacher anymore?” Overhearing what they said, Jesus told him, “Don’t be afraid; just believe.” He did not let anyone follow him except Peter, James and John the brother of James. When they came to the home of the synagogue leader, Jesus saw a commotion, with people crying and wailing loudly. He went in and said to them, “Why all this commotion and wailing? The child is not dead but asleep.”
Lord of the Flies: Biblical References 2
Does the book The Lord of the Flies accurately represent how the bible depicts human nature?
Are humans naturally good or evil and selfish?