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Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) in Indonesia

Global Environmental and Sustainability Politics | WiSe 12/13
by

Niels Kirstein

on 5 May 2013

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Transcript of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) in Indonesia

Funding 3. Stages of REDD+-Development 4. Assessment of Sustainability:
Criteria & Indicators 6. Early Achievements 2. Short Introduction to REDD Population: 237 Mio.
Area: 1.904.569 km²
More than 17.000 islands
124th on Human Development Index (medium human development) 4.4 bil. USD$ provided by international community for climate change activities
Up to 1 bil. USD$ from Norway REDD+ in Indonesia Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity Active public engagement
Trend towards freedom of press
Progress in adressing broad governance challenges
Commitment to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 26 % (41 % with international assistance)
Letter of intent with Norway facilitated many projects 5. Threats and objections Michael Völkel & Niels Kirstein Outline 1. Basic Facts about Indonesia
2. Short Introduction to REDD
3. Stages of REDD+-Development
4. Assessment of Sustainability:
Criteria & Indicators
5. Threats and objections
6. Early Achievements German support for REDD activities by 2010: 122 Mio. € (28 Mio € in Indonesia)
German support for forest protection activities: 1.524 Mio. € 1966: 77 % of Indonesian area covered with rainforest
Estimated deforestation rate: 1.125 Mio. ha per year
Rich biodiversity: 11 % of the world's plant species, 10 % of mammal species and 16 % of bird species 3rd place in GHG emissions worldwide (2,05 bil. t GHG)
85 % of GHG emissions come from deforestation and destruction of peatlands Causes of changes in forest cover Logging (70 % illegal)
Forest fires
Oil palm plantation
Mining
Other economic activities Development and economic interests
Community reliance on natural re-sources
Strong market demand for timber and timber products
Strong demand and high prices for es-tate crops and mining commodities
Unclear tenure
Political interests
Poor governance and forest resource management Underlying Drivers Development National REDD+ Strategy
Design REDD+ institution, funding instrument and independent MRV framework
Select pilot provinces Found REDD+ institution
Establish funding instrument
Establish MRV system
Establish the first and the second pilot province programme
Build capacity and work instruments
Finalise laws and legislative preconditions Phase 1 (2011 - 2012) Phase 2 (2012 - 2014) Fully implement REDD+ system
Continue emission reduction programme
Deliver programme for independent monitoring and verification
Carry out payments Phase 3 (2014 onwards) Focus on carbon markets, no solutions for reducing global emissions Main References Thank you for your attention! Criterion 2: Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems Criterion 3: Maintenance of ecosystem health and vitality Criterion 4: Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources Criterion 5: Maintenance of forest contribution to global carbon cycles Criterion 6: Maintenance and enhancement of long term multiple socio-economic benefits to meet the needs of societies Criterion 7: Legal, institutional and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management Indrarto, G. B. et al. 2012. The context of REDD+ in Indonesia: Dri-vers, agents and institutions
Frings, M. 2011. Indonesiens Rolle in der internationalen Klimapoli-tik: Finanzielle Anreize zum Schutz der Waldbestände
Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environ-ment. 2007. Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Mana-gement in Victoria: Guidance Document
Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Ent-wicklung. 2011. Ready for REDD: Erfahrungen der deutschen Ent-wicklungszusammenarbeit mit REDD
http://www.un-redd.org
http://www.theredddesk.org Indicator: Extent to which the legal framework (laws, regulations, guidelines) supports the conser-vation and sustainable management of fo-rests Verifiers: No obligatory international framework at the moment
November 2009: Green Paper established by the Ministry of Finance
Letter of Intent between Norway and Indonesia
2010: Establishment of REDD+ Taskforce
Planned Reforms, e.g. environmental law and sewage law Some provinces suffer under a low adminis-trative structure
Weak enforcement of laws Indicator: Extent to which the institutional framework supports the conservation and sustainable management of forests Verifiers: Since 2007: Ministry of Forestry has been concentrating on plans to implement REDD+ schemes
2009: government joined two international initiatives that support REDD+ readiness activities:
UN-REDD Programme
Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) managed by the World Bank.
Indonesian Climate Change Trust Fund (ICCTF) was set up as a national funding institution
2011: campaign to raise awareness to avoid forest fires and their damages
Many task force members have a high reputation in the society Main Tasks Ensure the development of a National REDD+ Strategy and a National Action Plan to re-duce GHG emissions
Prepare the establishment of REDD+ institu-tions
Prepare instruments and mechanisms for REDD+ funding
Prepare the establishment of an independent and reliable REDD+ MRV agency
Develop criteria for selecting pilot pro-vinces and ensuring their preparedness
Implement other activities relating to prepa-ring implementation of the LoI with the Go-vernment of Norway Indicator: Capacity to measure and monitor changes in the conservation and sustainable manage-ment of forests Verifiers: MRV = Monitoring, Reporting, Verification
Central government is responsible for moni-toring and reporting
Verification is generally the task of indepen-dent institutions
Currently Indonesia is lacking the necessary capacity for effective monitoring and repor-ting Who will benefit? Developed countries or Indonesia? Contradictionary laws between central and regional governments Uncertainty of tenure and land-use conflicts won't be solved in short term Crucial point: multi-stakeholder involvement Governance has to improve before implementation Vulnerable to manipulation, corruption Oil palm estate and industrial timber plantation companies may secure double benefits but forests still won't be saved Restricted access for communities to their forest homes 1. Basic Facts about Indonesia
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