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Copy of Emotions and Feelings

ESL lesson looking at adjectives to describe feelings and emotions

Huda Zaidi

on 28 September 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Emotions and Feelings

I was really __________ when I won the competition because I didn't expect to win.
My parents were really ________ with me because I failed my exams.
My sister broke my favourite toy. I was ____________ with her!
I hate horror movies. I feel _________ when I watch them!
Stefanie tripped over on her way to the stage. She felt so ______________.
My best friend just got a good job. I'm really _____!
My mother was really ________ when I got 100% in my exam!
I'm so ________ that my favourite celebrity is coming to my town! I can’t wait!
Concept of Emotions
 Class Activity 
Communication of

When I saw my friend fall over in the corridor, I was ________.
Min Jung has a new car. I really want it. I am so ________ of her.
Joseph LeDoux
"Unfortunately one of the most significant things ever said about emotion may be that everyone knows what it is until they are asked to define."
If emotions were colours, we would each have a rainbow.
Dates back to 1579
Derived from the French word ‘
’ which means "to stir up"
This is based on the Latin '
', (where e- variant of ex-) means 'out' and 'movere' means 'move'.
The related term "motivation" is also derived from the word 'movere'.
“Emotion is an inferred complex sequence of reactions to a stimulus including cognitive evaluations, subjective changes, autonomic and neural arousal, impulses to action and behavior designed to have an effect upon the situation that initiated the complex sequence.” (Plutchik, 1982, p. 551)
Robert Plutchik
Components of Emotion
The Physiological Component:
Autonomic Arousal
The Cognitive Component:
Thinking and Perception
The Affective Component:
Subjective Feelings
The Behavioural Component:
Overt Expression
Classification of Emotion
Primary Emotions

Automatic, pre-organized
Arise from sensory experience
Processed through the limbic system before or parallel to being recognized consciously Universally expressed and recognized
Typically seen in animals as well
Damasio (1994) suggests that these emotions are innate
The primary emotions, also known as basic emotions, are six as identified by Paul Ekman and Friesen namely fear, disgust, surprise, anger, sadness and joy.
Secondary Emotions
Secondary emotions are first generated through higher cortical processes and arrive at the limbic system over a different route from that taken by primary emotions generated through sensory experience.
Acquired through learning and experience.
Highly personal and individual
Embarrassment, pride, shame and anxiety
Theories of Emotion
Charles Darwin
Animals need emotions to survive
They need fear as a trigger to escape predators and aggression to defend their territory, young and food
Emotions have an evolutionary basis and are derived from our animal past
We rely on emotions to make quick, often complex decisions
Common Sense Theory
Physiological Reaction
Emotion/Subjective Feeling
Body Chemistry of Emotion
Testosterone affects different brain areas differently, increasing the responses of emotion-related areas, while decreasing the ability of the cerebral cortex to identify and regulate the emotion consciously.
Young adult men, who have the highest testosterone levels, also have the highest rate of aggressive behaviours and violent crimes (Archer, 2000).
Low serotonin activity may be a reason for increased aggressiveness in adolescent males.
A better hypothesis is that high levels of serotonin inhibit a variety of impulses.
So when researchers use drugs or diet to suppress serotonin levels, some people feel depressed, others become more aggressive or impulsive and those with previous drug problems report a craving for drugs

An amino acid found in small amounts in proteins.
Neurons synthesize serotonin from tryptophan
Tryptophan crosses by an active transport channel shared with phenylalanine and other large amino acids.
A diet high in other amino acids impairs the brain's ability to synthesize serotonin.
One study found that many young men on such a diet showed an increase in aggressive behaviour a few hours after eating
This is an enzyme that converts tryptophan into serotonin.
People vary in gene that controls tryptophan hydroxylase.
People with less active forms of this enzyme are more likely than average to report frequent anger and aggression and to make violent suicidal attempts
This enzyme breaks down the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, thus lowering the available amounts.
People have genetic differences in the production of this enzyme.
The effects of this enzyme interact with childhood experiences.
Communication of Emotions: Expression
Human beings express their emotions through a number of verbal and non-verbal means including facial expressions, gestures and postures.
Charles Darwin believed that facial expressions of emotions were innate and inherited behavioral patterns.
Ekman and Friensen (1971) studied the ability of members of an isolated tribe in New Guinea.
They produced facial expressions that Westerners readily recognized.
Such cross cultural studies made researchers to believe that facial expressions of emotions are unlearned behavioral patterns.
Facial Expressions of Emotions:
There are total 44 muscles in face out of which 40 are devoted solely to emotional expression while the other 4 are for opening the mouth, speaking and chewing.
Facial expressions of emotions are automatic and involuntary. It is not easy to produce a realistic facial expression of emotion when we do not really feel that way.
A nineteenth century neurologist,
Guillaume-Benjamin Duchenne de Boulogne,
stated that genuinely happy smiles, as opposed to false smiles or social smiles, involve contraction of a muscle near the eyes, the lateral part of the orbicularis oculi---now sometimes referred to as
Duchenne's muscle
Basic Universal Facial Expressions of Emotions:
Paul Ekman (1957), an American psychologist found that the seven universally recognized facial expressions of emotion are sadness, joy, contempt, disgust, anger, surprise and fear.
include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body made to express thought or to emphasize speech.
is defined as the manner in which the body is held upright against gravity as it's sitting down, lying down or standing up.
Maurice Krout
studies have shown a common meaning of variety of gestures and postures, these are summarized as;
Shoulder forward (one or both), chin in and hunch, crouch (head to knees in seated person), rocking of head or body, immobility
‘beating’ postures, fist clench, hand to neck, expanded chest, foot flex and extend
Fumble, head groom/scratch, finger sucking
Fingers to lips, hand covering eyes,
Self blame or attack:
Face picking or scratching
Hand to nose
Self assurance:
Rubbing / stroking
Emotional/ Restless:
Rubbing arm of chair

Cultural Variation in Emotional Expression
Emotional expression varies with culture.
The more individualistic a culture is, the more likely the people will show emotions that are disengaged or emphasize what the self is feeling
Different emotional expressions are interpreted differently in different cultures.
Most psychologists believe that at least the most basic emotions are inborn and do not have to be learned
Comparisons of different cultures, however, suggest that learning does play an important role in emotions in two ways:
First, Cultural learning influences the expression of emotions more than what is experienced.
Second, there is accumulating evidence that people in different cultures tend to interpret situations that create emotional reaction differently.

Functions of Emotions
Emotions can motivate us to take action.

Emotions help us survive, thrive, and avoid danger.

Emotions can help us make decisions.
James-Lange Theory
William James
Carl Lange
Emotion-producing Stimulus
Subjective Experience of Emotion
Physiological Response
Limbic System
Sympathetic Division of Autonomic Nervous System
Cerebral Cortex
People whose spinal columns have been severed in accidents still experience emotions normally, even though all feedback to the brain through the spinal cord from the organs aroused by the autonomic nervous system has been cut off
The visceral organs respond relatively slowly
The physiological reactions that accompany different emotions are similar
It is possible to produce physiological changes without any following emotional experience

• The first criticism on James-Lange theory was failed by later researches by two reasons:
i. The afferent nerves that carry feedback from skeletal muscles do not all run through the spinal cord.
ii. Severing the spinal cord still leaves intact feedback to the brain from the viscera through the vagus nerve.
• According to James, the feedback involved in emotional experience comes not only from the visceral organs, that are slow to respond, but also from the skeletal muscles which provide instant feedback to the brain.

Cannon-Bard Theory

Phillip Bard
Walter Cannon
Limbic System
Cerebral Cortex
Emotion-producing Stimulus
Subjective Experience of Emotion
Physiological Response
• This theory over-estimated the role of thalamus in emotions. Many other brain areas are also involved in emotional reactions.
• The assumption that physiological arousal has no influence on emotions has been denied by many researches.
• This theory has been supported by researches on animals whose generalizability is doubtful.

• Cannon (1927) removed the nervous system of cats and Sherrington (1900) removed the spinal cord of dogs, finding in both cases that although no physiological feedback was possible, the animals showed normal emotional responses.
• Dana (1921) conducted a case study on an individual with severed spinal cord who nevertheless still showed a range of emotions.
Schachter–Singer theory
Stanley Schachter
Jerome E. Singer
Takes into account influence of cognitive factors
Combines ideas from previous James-Lange and Cannon-Bard Theories
Sometimes emotions are expressed before we think about them
Scientists have only been able to partially replicate the results of the Schachter-Singer experiments

The Facial Feedback Theory
Paul Ekman
It focuses particularly on the role of face.
Ekman and others have found that each basic emotion is associated with a unique facial expression.
Ekman believes that those expressions are produced rapidly and automatically (though they can be inhibited) and that sensory feedback from the expression contributes to the emotional feeling.
Research has also shown that forming the face into an emotional expression can produce effects on rest of the body that are similar to those produced when the emotion is felt.
Neurological Basis of Emotion
Right Hemisphere:
The right hemisphere appears to be more responsive to emotional stimuli than the left.
When a message is heard, the right hemisphere assesses the emotional expression of the voice while the left hemisphere assesses the meaning of the words.
When the right hemisphere is inactive, people do not experience strong emotions and do not even remember feeling them.
Blonder, Bowers and Heilman (1991) found that patients with right hemisphere lesions had no difficulty making emotional judgments about particular situations but were severely impaired in judging the emotions conveyed by facial expressions or hand gestures.

The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus. It plays a role in emotional responses by synthesizing and releasing neurotransmitters which can affect mood, reward and arousal.
The amygdalae are two small, round structures located anterior to the hippocampi near the temporal poles.
Amygdala plays a special role in emotional responses.
During attack behavior, activity increases in the corticomedial area of the amygdala,
It is evident that amygdala is involved in the recognition of facial expression of emotions but research shows that it is not involved in emotional expression.
Several studies have found that lesion to the amygdala impair people's ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion, especially expressions of fear.
People with damage in amygdala do not lose their emotions; however, they are impaired at processing emotional information when the signals are subtle or in any way ambiguous.
Amygdala damage interferes with the social judgments that we constantly make about other people.
People with amygdala damage also fail to focus their attention on emotional stimuli the way other people do.
Somatosensory cortex:
Patients with impairments in somatosensory cortex of the right hemisphere also have impairments in recognition of emotions.
Adolphs and his colleagues described the relationship between somatosensation and emotional recognition as when we see a facial expression of an emotion, we unconsciously imagine ourselves making that expression.
The somatosensory representation of what it feels like to make the perceived expression provide the cues we use to recognize the emotion being expressed in the face we are viewing.
Orbitofrontal cortex
Is a major structure involved in decision making and the influence by emotion on that decision.
Basal Ganglia
Damage to the basal ganglia disrupts a person's ability to recognize a particular emotion: disgust.
Several studies have found that people with Huntington’s disease or obsessive-compulsive disorder have lost the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust
Huntington's disease:
Huntington's disease is a progressive, fatal, genetic disorder that involves the degeneration of the putamen and caudate nucleus, two components of basal ganglia.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:
It is a mental disorder that appears to be caused by abnormalities in basal ganglia.

Insular Cortex or Insula
It is a portion of the frontal lobe that is normally hidden behind the temporal lobe.
Insula, especially the anterior insular region, is strongly activated if one sees a disgusting picture or the facial expressions of someone who is feeling disgusted
Damage to the insular cortex causes failure of experience and recognition of disgust.
However, the insula reacts to frightening pictures as well as to disgusting ones and disgusting experiences activate brain areas in addition to the insula.

Prefrontal Cortex
It appears to play a critical role in the regulation of emotion and behavior by anticipating the consequences of our actions.
The prefrontal cortex may play an important role in delayed gratification by maintaining emotions over time and organizing behavior toward specific goals.
People with such damage often make impulsive decisions without pausing to consider the consequences

Olfactory Bulb
The olfactory bulbs are the first cranial nerves, located on the ventral side of the frontal lobe. They are involved in olfaction, the perception of odors.
The hippocampus is a structure of the medial temporal lobes that is mainly involved in memory.
The hippocampus allows memories to be stored long term and also retrieves them when necessary.
It is this retrieval that is used within the amygdala to help evaluate current affective stimulus.
Cingulate gyrus
Located above the corpus callosum and is usually considered a part of the limbic system.
A part of the cingulate gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex, is thought to play a central role in attention and behaviorally demanding cognitive tasks.
It may be particularly important with regard to conscious, subjective emotional awareness.
Cerebellum has a significant role in emotional regulation.
Lesion studies have shown that cerebellar dysfunction can attenuate the experience of positive emotions.
While these same studies do not show an attenuated response to frightening stimuli.
Tryptophan Hydroxylase
Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA)
Emotions allow other people to understand us.
Emotions allow us to understand others.
Adding color to our lives.
Internal signals
Emotions Shape our Future Behaviour

Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence, in simplest words, is an ability or capacity to perceive, assess and manage the emotions of one's self and of others.
EQ, Emotional Quotient, is how one measures emotional intelligence.
John D. Mayer, Peter Salovey and David R. Caruso:
"The ability to process emotional information, particularly as it involves the perception, assimilation, understanding and management of emotion."
The Five Components of Emotional Intelligence
Internal motivation
Social skills

Emotional Disorders
Volitional Facial Paresis
Emotional Facial Paresis
Involuntary Emotional Expression Disorder
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
Mobius Syndrome
Urbach-Wiethe Disease
Humans and animals both have basic emotions. What sets them apart is that humans drive their emotions instead of being driven by them.
Gestures and Postures:
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