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The Secret Life Of The Brain

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Mayah Molella

on 5 May 2014

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Transcript of The Secret Life Of The Brain

The Secret Life Of The Brain
The Babys Brain
The Childs Brain
The Teenage Brain
The Adult Brain
The Aging Brain
The Brain Changing and Developing
- What is a neuron? Neurons a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.

- A piece of the brain, the size of a grain of rice contains about 10,000 nerve cells.

- Takes just four weeks for the first brain cell, the neuron are already forming at a fast rate

- Neurons never reproduce and are rarely replaced.

Premature Babies
What Do Experts Say?
- Expert says- "Most cells in the body do their thing and then they die and their replaced. Neurons are born in fetal life and then those very cells are the ones that are still functioning all the way into old age."

- Expert, Frank Duffy says- "In the early days having these children survive was a miracle and referred to as children who made it on their own as miracle babies and now miracles are common. In fact it's more less an expectation that a premature infant will life."

- What is a premature baby? A premature baby is a birth that takes place more than three weeks before the baby is due. Premature birth gives the baby less time to develop in the womb, for example the brain and body.

- When a baby is born prematurely their development is only partially over. Brain development is still needing to develop but now must be done in the nursery
- In the womb is dark and quiet, outside of the womb they are very sensitive to light and noise and must adapt.

- Out of the five senses, vision is the last to develop.

- As the fetus grows, the neurons make their way out of the neural tube to build the brain layer upon layer.

- Neurons travel in waves, millions every day and scientists call it migration

- Twenty-four weeks the vital organs of the body are formed, the heart can beat on its own, the lungs are prepared to fill up with air, and the brain has billions and billions of neurons.

- The brain builds connections nearly two million ever second and begins to wire itself by following a genetic blue print.

- Just one or two months of missing visual experiences from birth can have permanent consequences on the way that the brain is wired up and on the brain can do later on in life.

- Infants who are premature will have problems later in life, problems like...
- Paying attention
- Learning
- Planning
- Imposing structure
- Prioritizing

- Very dependent on the mother

- In the womb the infant has support from the mother’s womb for comfort

- In the womb they don't need to breathe on their own

- Out of the womb they can see and hear yet they cannot manage themselves like a fulltime child could

The brain changing and developing
- A childs brain has twice as many connections than an adult and also shows the ability to change quickly.

- As a child grows into an adult the brain becomes more complex and they learn to reason, pay attention and make friends

- Nothing is more dramatic then when a child learns language and by the age of five they develop a range of vocabulary

- Strong connections in the brain between speaking, listening, and understanding which are all closely linking together in the language system

- In the brain, language is located in the left hemisphere

- Vocabulary, grammar and comprehension are different language systems

- Some children have difficulties with learning vocabulary but that has nothing to do with their intelligence

- Studies done where children are hooked up to a machine that pick up electrical pulses that are generated by the brain while the child listens to stories that store grammatical errors

- What happens to the left hemisphere due to disease or injury?
- Loss of the left hemisphere will result of loss of language system within the brain

- Some children suffer from seizures that can linked to the left hemisphere

- To stop these seizures many have tried use of medication and have had to result in the removal of the left hemisphere

- Children who have their left hemisphere removed will need help for many, many years after from doctors to help to train the right hemisphere to take over the job of language

- Expert, Helen Neville says- “Experience is a major player in driving the development of differentiation of the brain”

- Expert, Patricia Kuhl, University of Washington says- “The interesting thing that the studies have demonstrated that at birth and for a short time after babies have this incredibly astonishing ability to hear differences between all the sounds used in the world languages”

The brain changing and developing
- By the second decade of life the human brain is full size and adolescence is the last time for enormous growth and development

- At the beginning of adolescence the frontal cortex goes through a dramatic stage of growth

- The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that allows one to make future plans and it is still developing

- The prefrontal cortex:
-Responsible for reason

- As the brain develops teenagers face risks like addictive drugs, alcohol, and also schizophrenia which develops most often in teenagers

What is Psychosis?
- The word “Psychosis” is used to describe conditions that affect the mind, in which there has been loss of contact with reality

- In the normal brain there are waves of sound that travel to the ear as electrical and chemical pulses to the hearing part of the brain, the auditory cortex

- In psychosis they believe that when these sounds go to the brain to be interpreted the thinking part of the brain seems to fail, creating sounds that are not really there

- Scientists theorize that psychosis is caused by problems with dopamine, which is a chemical in the brain

- In the normal brain, dopamine acts by stimulating receptors on the neuron that is its target

- In the psychosis brain the levels of dopamine increase which overstimulates the receptors which wrecks the brains ability to send clear messages

- Anti-psychotic medication relieves psychosis by reducing the impact of dopamine that is on the neuron, but doesn’t fully cure a patient of their disorder

What is schizophrenia?

- Schizophrenia is a challenging disorder that makes it difficult to distinguish between what is real and unreal, think clearly, manage emotions, relate to others, and function normally

- Scientists found out through MRIS of the brain that in patients with schizophrenia the ventricle of the brain were larger

- Ventricles in the brain are cavities that hold fluid that cushion the delicate tissues in the brain

- Since the ventricles are bigger than other things in the brain must be smaller for them to fit, it was found that the surface of the brain, the cortex is slightly thinner

What is addiction?
- In the normal brain dopamine travels across the synapse and stimulates receptors on the targeted neuron and then is reabsorbed by dopamine transporters

- Addiction is a mimic of the chemical dopamine
When drugs are abused, trillions of drug molecules surge into the sunglasses clogging the vacuum cleaners boosting the level of dopamine in the brain producing a high

- After repeated drug abuse the dark side to addiction starts to show and the brain responds to the drug by fighting back the nerve receptors without the receptors which cannot stimulate the neuron and the drug high is reduced

What do experts say?
- Expert, Steve E. Hyman, National institute of Mental Healthy says- That schizophrenia starts in late adolescence and in early 20’s when a family and society have their maximum investment

- Expert, Daniel Weinberger, National institute of Mental Health says- The prefrontal cortex functions like the conductor in the orchestra and it maintains harmony and makes music

- Expert, Diana Perkins, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill- “We don’t hear with our ears, we hear with our brain, we don’t see with our eyes, we see with our brains”

- Expert, Steve E. Hyman, National institute of Mental Healthy says- That addiction is like any other serious brain disease like depression and schizophrenia.

How is the brain changing and develop?
- There’s no way to have a fully functioning reason system without having a proper working emotion system

- Emotions are generated by structures that are hidden in the brain

- The small amygdala is the first to respond to an emotional event

- Many waves of nerve impulses travel down the brain stem setting off a response throughout the body

- For most people awareness of a feeling is followed immediately after an emotion is created

How can experiences effect the brain
- What is a stroke?
- A stroke is the loss in brain function

- Strokes can affect the side of the brain which holds emotions, leaving ones emotions paralyzed

- One who had a stroke still experiences emotions, ones body responds but when the physical response is carried to the thinking brain it fails to send

- The emotions that ones were connected to memories have been taken away

What is Post Dramatic Stress Disorder, (PDSD)?
What is Post Dramatic Stress Disorder, (PDSD)?
“Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental illness. It involves exposure to trauma involving death or the threat of death, serious injury, or sexual violence”, (Canadian Mental Health Association)

- One of the diagnosis signs of PDSD is that the reminders of the tragedy produce a physical response

- In the normal brain the amygdala acts like an early warning signal for when there’s danger it doesn’t act on its own, the frontal cortex where we think and reason plays a big role

- The thought of fear goes straight to the amygdala but slowly the information travels to the frontal cortex where danger is recognized

- Once the cortex realizes there’s no danger, it sends the message back to the amygdala remaining the fear response

- In PDSD the cortex is held hostage by a damaged amygdala and thinking and reason is taken over by emotion and panic

- In a moment of terror the amygdala sets off a bunch of reactions and they awake the nerve impulses and travel down the brain stem which triggers the release of adrenaline in the body sending stress neurons into the brain

- After panic the tragedy is set deeper and deeper in the neural circuitry

- People with PDSD have an overly sensitive amygdala making even just a small sound can cause someone to feel threatened and fearful, this makes them relieve the tragedy

What do experts say?
- Expert says- “Emotion is part of the mechanisms that allow us to stay alive”

- Expert, Antonio R. Damasia, University of Lowa says- “By having a feeling of emotion you have a possibility of taking into account what happened in using that for the proper planning of future actions”

- Expert, Richard Davidson, University of Wisconsin, Madison says- “Anger, for example is a constellation of brain responses in which helps our ability to remove obstacles”

- Expert, Joseph LeDoux, New York University says- “The amygdala sends outputs to the body so that the muscles begin to tense, hormones are realized, blood pressure goes up and all of these are a part of the protective response of the body”.

How is the brain changing and developing?
- It is discovered that even into old age the brain continues with new neurons through the process of dividing stem cells

- When we learn something new, neurons of the hippocampus form strong connections by sending electrochemical messages
across the tiny gaps between them called kinases

- For decades neuroscientists believe that neurons in a fully developed brain never really reproduces themselves and can never be replaced

- For a memory to take place the neurons must form electrical and chemical links that connect them through a stable circuit

How do experiences effect the brain?
- Parkinson Disease:
- Thousands of neurons are slowly dying and making movement slowly limited

- Alzheimer Disease:
- With age the disease Alzheimer’s can be developed

- Alzheimer leads to the death of billions of neurons which causes problems with memory, thinking and bahaviour

- Neurons are on long chairs of molecules which transport nutriment to the cells, short strips of protein keep the chains stable and in Alzheimer the proteins start to curl up and causes the molecules to separate

What do experts say?
- Expert, Denise Park, University of Michigan says- “Aging begins in your twenties as soon as you reach maturity”

- Expert, Marilyn Albert, Harvard Medical School says- “There’s very little nerve cell loss. The brain stays full of cells that we need in order to function normally”

- Expert, Carl Cotman, University of California says- “The biggest reduction is we’ve gone from describing what’s going wrong to getting deep into the mechanisms to tell what you can do about it and how can you put more quality into the life of a neuron”.

- Expert, Fred H. Gage says- “The brain is a very complex structure, full of learning, memory and storing large amounts of information”

- Expert, Jeffery Macklis, Harvard Medical School says- “If there’s a possibility to replace and interconnect new neurons within circulatory that’s imperfect that gives a whole different view toward repaid of the neurons system”.

"The Babys Brain." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/episode1
"The Secret Life of the Brain: Episode 1: The Baby's Brain." YouTube. YouTube, 18 Feb. 2013. Web. 2 May 2014. <
Schizophrenia: Signs, Types & Causes (Schizophrenia: Signs, Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Effects)
What is psychosis? Fraser Health Early Psychosis Intervention (What is psychosis? Fraser Health Early Psychosis Intervention)
"Ventricles of the Brain ." Ventricles of the Brain. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1923254-overview>.
"The Secret Life of the Brain: Episode 2: The Child's Brain." YouTube. YouTube, 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 2 May 2014. <
"The Secret Life of the Brain: Episode 3: The Teenage Brain." YouTube. YouTube, 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 2 May 2014. <
"The Secret Life of the Brain: Episode 4: The Adult Brain." YouTube. YouTube, 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 2 May 2014. <
"The Secret Life of the Brain: Episode 5: The Aging Brain." YouTube. YouTube, 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 2 May 2014. <
"Childs Brain." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/episode2
"Teenage Brain." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 1 May 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/episode3/i
"Adult Brain." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/episode4
"Aging Brain." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/episode5
"What is a stroke?." heartandstroke.ca. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.heartandstroke.com/site/c.ik
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