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LoveLife's HIV/AIDS Education Programs in South Africa
Transcript of LoveLife's HIV/AIDS Education Programs in South Africa
Programs in South Africa South Africa has the world's largest HIV/AIDS epidemic
5.6 million people live with HIV/AID in 2009
Prevalence of HIV/AIDS: 17.3% in general population but pervasiveness varies between regions
Annual Deaths: 270,000 people
Young adults ages 15-24 most affected
Women are more susceptible to HIV than men HIV/AIDS Education
in South Africa HIV/AIDS education exists as small sector of a broader curriculum of life orientation
Lack of training of teachers to teach about HIV/AIDS
Discomfort and lack of self-efficacy in teachers
Taboo topic in the community What is LoveLife? LoveLife is a non-profit organization based in South Africa that promotes HIV/AIDS awareness through a "combination of highly visible sustained national multi-media HIV education and awareness campaign with countrywide adolescent friendly service development in government clinics, and a national network of outreach and support program[s] for youth." (KFF, 2000)
Originally it was created to simply educate South African youth about the epidemic and push these individuals to talk about these issues, but recently, the organization has shifted towards a more holistic approach in promoting healthy lifestyles in order to "create an HIV-free generation" with a focus on young women.
Lovelife was established in 1999 by different health organizations within South Africa along with community-based organizations, the South African government, major South African Media groups, and private organizations.
The organization is regulated by the "Non-Profit Organization Act No. 71 of 1997 and the Trust Property Act of 57 of 1988." (loveLife, 2012a) Issues & Controversy There's emphasis on materialism and promise of a better life that is campaigned through LoveLife’s marketing that is not affordable by the majority living in South Africa due to socioeconomic factors (Thomas, 2004).
In a study of self-efficacy and HIV risk reduction success of LoveLife programs, the data indicated that though use of male condoms are emphasized, they are only used about 56 to 59 percent of the time. Additionally, with emphasis of condoms, it allows more freedom for male in sexual decision making such as having multiple partners, which overlooks the vulnerability of young females and does not necessarily reduce the risk of HIV (Louw, 2012; Taylor, 2010). Context of HIV/AIDS
In South Africa The Non-Profit Organization Act of 1997 was enacted in South Africa in order to encourage and support the contributions of these organizations to the "diverse needs of the population."
A great amount of LoveLife's funding comes from the South African Government.
LoveLife also receives funding private sectors, foundations and trusts.
Funding ranges from local level to global level including Gates, BMW, Rapport (a local newspaper in South Africa), etc. LoveLife in Depth LoveLife is organized and managed by a Board of Trustees. The organization is divided into different departments (ie: Programs, Fundraising, Resources, etc.) in order to implement its goals and initiatives.
The current CEO of LoveLife is Grace Malthhape, who was selected to head the organization on April 1, 2009.
The LoveLife campaign is based on a three-tiered approach: (1) Supporting youth requires a broad response from the South African Community. (2) Take into individual, social, and structural factors. (3) Empowering youth to live with an HIV-free way of living. Breakdown of LoveLife LoveLife is a multi-dimensional organization due to its holistic approach towards HIV/AIDS its programming and policies have a variety of components: Analysis Based on the information we gathered it's difficult to know whether or not LoveLife has actually been beneficial. The statistical information presented in their annual reports aren't very clear. They use a lot of jargon making it difficult to understand what the percentages are conveying.
In our analysis we used a variety of different lenses:
Place demands on women by empowerment to promote national development. For this situation, it’s to empower women to prevent HIV/AIDS in order to promote economic growth
Empowerment through LoveLife programs produces the image of women in South Africa as feminist modern.
This is the notion that empowerment will give women more agency and “have control over their bodies”
This is produced through women’s control over fertility by embracing this holistic lifestyle and good sexual health.
Emphasis on abstinence and health rather than safe sex and contraceptives. Field Services Youth Leadership Development LoveLifestyle Programming Parent Programming Social Media Field Services LoveLife Hubs: Method in which loveLife delivers its curriculum in schools, arranges events, sets up sports leagues.
Y-Centres: Multi-purpose facilities that provide sex education, clinical services, recreational activities, etc.
Franchises: Community based organizations that have endorsed loveLife's aims and approaches.
Outlets: School hubs in rural areas.
Clinics: LoveLife has implemented its programs in clinics throughout South Africa. Youth Leadership Development Through groundBreakers, trained peer educators, Alumni, and goGetters, "a volunteer group of Grandmothers who provide support to orphans," LoveLife promotes their initiatives.
These individuals are placed throughout communities to facilitate discussions and provide support. This particular component of loveLife focuses on how faculty and facilities interact with schools.
LoveLife hosts a variety of events that range from loveLife Games, sporting competitions that are hosted all throughout South Africa, to talks, presentations, and workshops. Parent Programming Social Media Broadcasting: LoveLife has created a television series called Make Your Move, PSA's that promote their message, and documentaries about individuals who have faced HIV/AIDS.
Radio: LoveLife has a weekly radio show that delivers media messages.
Website: The LoveLife website is divided strategically for specific audiences: youth and corporate individuals.
Social Networking: Uses Facebook and Twitter to distribute loveLife content and share upcoming events and news.
MyMsta: A social networking tool created by LoveLife to empower youth to take action and control of their lives.
Print: LoveLife has a magazine called 'Uncut' which is distributed to schools, Y-Centres, and other community based organizations.
Hotlines: LoveLife has two seperate hotlines that HIV/AIDS Prevention in South Africa Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT)
1990 Infant Mortality Rate: 44 deaths per 1000
2001 Infant Mortality Rate: 56.9 deaths per 1000
Advocated antiretroviral treatment
Suppress HIV virus and stop progression of HIV disease
Reduce risk of HIV-positive pregnant women transmitting HIV to infants
Decline in PMTCT since 2009
2011: 95% of HIV-positive pregnant woman received treatment preventing transmission of infection AIDS Denialism & South African Government Argued HIV is not the cause of AIDS
Former South African President Thabo Mbeki accept stance of AIDS denialism
Against antiretroviral treatment
Caused estimate of 365,000 deaths
Term ended in 2008 resulted in implementing antiretroviral treatment
Future: National Strategic Plan 2012-2016: Aims to ensure 80% of people who needs antiretroviral treatment has access to treatment Post-Apartheid &
Its Historical Impact on HIV/AIDS How HIV/AIDS is Gendered in
South Africa LoveLifestyle Programming HIV/AIDS first emerged in 1982, however the nation's attention diverted by protestations against apartheid
Apartheid reinforces poverty through racial disparities in education and health care, etc
Poverty results in lack of access to health care and medications Patriarchal society and power imbalance
Women are less able to make decisions regarding sexual health
Men against use of contraceptives increasing risk of HIV infection
Domestic abuse and rape are major factors to HIV infection
Young girls married off to older men Born Free Dialogues: Facilitates discussion about sex and sexuality between youth and adults. Foucault:
Emphasize the knowledge-power framework.
Those who have knowledge have power because knowledge is viewed as the “truth."
IE: LoveLife promotes knowledge about HIV/AIDS as a way to take control of their lives in every aspect (self-esteem, life-goals, etc.)
Those in power dictates what’s valuable and control how society is regulated
Top down approach of LoveLife deeming their knowledge as the best method of operation.
IE: The language used in their publications, websites, mission statements, etc.
Lack recognition of cultural and political barriers.
IE: In their mission statement they explain that one of their goals is to recognize social, cultural and individual differences but what's conveyed, in reports, language, websites, etc, does not coincide with that notion.
In “Deconstructing Development Expert” Parpart also recognizes Foucault’s knowledge-power framework.
LoveLife imposes their methods of empowering for women through their programs do not consider gender structures in South African community. Works Cited: KFF. "About South Africa: LoveLife - Kaiser Family Foundation." About South Africa:
LoveLife - Kaiser Family Foundation. KFF, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://www.kff.org/about/lovelife.cfm>.
UNAIDS. "South Africa." South Africa. UNAIDS. Web. 29 Apr. 2013.
AVERT. "HIV and AIDS in South Africa." HIV and AIDS in South Africa. AVERT,
2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2013.<http://www.avert.org/aidssouthafrica.htm>.
Louw, Julia, Karl Pelter, and Witness Chirinda. "Correlates of HIV Risk Reduction Self-Efficacy among Youth in
SouthAfrica." The Scientific World Journal 2012 (2012): 1-8. Print.
Pettifor, Audrey E. "Young People’s Sexual Health in South Africa: HIV Prevalence and Sexual Behaviors from a
Nationally Representative Household Survey." AIDS 19.14 (2005): 1525-534. Print.
Thomas, Kylie. "A Better Life for Some: The Lovelife Campaign and HIV/AIDS in South Africa." Agenda Feminist Media 2.1
(2004): 29-35. Print.
Taylor, Myra. "Changing Sexual Behaviour to Reduce HIV Transmission - a Multi-faceted Approach to HIV Prevention and
Treatment in a Rural South African Setting." AIDS Care 22.11 (2010): 1395-402. Print.
Lesko, Nancy. "Talking about Sex: The Discourses of LoveLife Peer Educators in South Africa." International
Journal of Inclusive Education 11.4 (2007): 519-33. Print.
Love Life Annual Report 2011. Publication. New LoveLife Trust, 2010. Print. http://www.lovelife.org.za/