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Methamphetamine

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Paola Orozco

on 8 December 2015

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Transcript of Methamphetamine

By: Daniela Flores, Alondra Sanchez,
Veronica Riggen & Paola Orozco

Methamphetamine
Anti- Drug Message
Methamphetamine
History
-Fire
-Yaba
-Tina
-Tweak
-Uppers
-Trash
-Chalk
-Speed
-Ice
-Crystal
-Glass
-Crank
--> SNORTED
--> SMOKED
--> INJECTED
--> SWALLOWED
FORMS
- Methamphetamine is very powerfully addictive stimulant drug that affects the central nervous system in a dramatical way.

- This drug is made easily in illegal laboratories with inexpensive over-the-counter ingredients.

- All these previous facts are what make methamphetamine be a drug with high potential for being spread and abused.

- Methamphetamine is a Schedule II stimulant, which means it has a high potential for abuse and is available only through a prescription that cannot be refilled.

- Methamphetamine is sometimes available with a prescription for obesity, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and narcolepsy, but crystal meth is a street drug that is made in illegal labs.

-It is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol.
- A combination of the stimulants methamphetamine and caffeine.

- Ingested orally.
In
Crystal Form

In
Pill form
What's in Meth?
- Most of Meth’s key ingredients are toxic and highly flammable.
- Although the “recipes” vary, these are the most commonly used ingredients:
Causes of methamphetamine’s abuse in today’s culture
1
How is methamphetamine made?
Most common process
Why is methamphetamine used?
Weight loss
Chemical Structure
Amphetamine is methamphetamine’s parent drug.

Methamphetamine's chemical structure is similar to the one of amphetamine.

The only difference with amphetamine is that meth has the presence of a methyl group and it has more pronounced effects on the central nervous system

That's why methamphetamine is also called methylamphetamine

It is an amphetamine-like compound.
Effects on the Body
Its ingredients
2
3
Its illegal
production
The available
information
They are:

Inexpensive

Easy obtained
and...
They are all
over-the-counter
ingredients!
Which mainly are...
Sodium
Hydroxide
Ephedrine
Matches-
red phosphorus
Ammonia
Iodine
It is illegally
produced in
clandestine labs
Usually located at...
kitchens,
workshops
recreational
vehicles
rural cabins
Instructions for synthesizing methamphetamine can be easily found on the Internet
iodine and red
phosphorus
are combined in order
to make hydriotic
acid
With hydroiodic acid
ephedrin is reduced
With sodium hydroxide
ephedrine is hydroge-
nated and its pH
increases.
Dangers
White phosphorus with sodium hydroxide can produce poisonous phosphine gas due to the overheating of the red phosphorus
White phosphorus
can auto ignite
and blow up the Lab
Medical uses
stimulant & euphoric effects
Females often use crystal meth for an extremely fast weight loss due to the loss of appetite this drug causes.
This weight loss effect is short term, which means that the weight that is lost is regained when the person stops taking methamphetamine.
-
This effects can last from 6-8 hours
The effects are caused due to that many neurotransmitters are released in the brain
Concentration, energy and alertness increase
Appetite fatigue to decrease.
Libido and sexual pleasure increase
sometimes people present violent behaviour
As many of the drugs, people who
are depressed take them just to
forget about the reason of their
depression and to feel all the
euphoric and stimulant effects
that create a sense of well- being.
Methamphetamine is also a prescription medication that can be used to treat health problems
Obesity
Due to meth's appetite re-
duction effect, it can be a
treatment way of weight
reduction, but it it short-
term
ADHD is the difficulty of paying attention, sitting still, and controlling the behavior.

Methamphetamine is a stimulant that can usually have calming effects when it is taken in the correct doses for ADHD treatment
ADHD
Due to that meth is highly addictive, it is not usually recommended by doctors to treat health problems
Body Temperature
Meth raises the body
temperature
to dangerous levels
Rise in heart and
respiratory rates
Organ failure
and brain damage
Brain
Meth causes users to see,
hear, or even feel things
that aren't really there
Hair
The toxic chemicals in Meth
Malnutrition
User's obsessive plucking
+
+
=
Hair fall
Weight
Meth suppresses the appetite
Users become extremely
thin and frail
Muscle tissue
and bone
density is lost
Brain Damage
While Consuming
After Consuming


High-

M
eth floods the brain with Dopamine.

Delusions & Hallucinations-
Hear voices, imagine things, feel bugs crawling under the Skin.

Aggression-
Meth over
stimulates the amygdala.

Obsessive behavior-
Obsessed with one thing
for hours.

Paranoia-
The person is irritating and hyper-alert.

Uncontrollable movement-
Involuntary facial and body movements.
Depression-
Methamphetamine damages Systems in the brain that regulates the emotions.

Addiction-
Meth is most likely to hook fat people than any other illegal drug.

Memory-
Meth damage short and long
erm memory by damaging the structure of the brain.

Tolerance–
Generates a cycle of dependance.

Learning-
Meth affects the basic motor skills.

Judgment-
Takes you away the ability of
determine consequences.
Muscles
Meth can cause:
- Involuntary muscle contractions
- Uncontrollable twitching
- Strange movements
- Facial tics
Immune System
Meth restricts the skin's blood
flow and its healing process
Resulting in
Graying skin
Acne
Open sores
The immune system

is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Bibliography
Heart
- Meth can severely increase heart rate and blood pressure.

- Extended use can cause:
Irregular heartbeat
Heart attack
Stroke
Teeth
Thanks to meth
- Poor Hygiene
- Bacteria
- Grinding
- Acidity of the drug
Will cause teeth and gums to rot
Skin
Social Impact of the Drug
- Illegal meth can be contaminated by non-stimulant impurities such as lead and mercury.

- Street metha is often mixed with other drugs including cocaine and phencyclidine.
Acetone
Lithium
Toluene
Hydrochloric
acid
Pseudoephedrine
Sulfuric acid
Anhydrous
ammonia
Red phosphorus
What is Meth, Effects of Meth & Facts About Methamphetamine - Meth Project. (n.d.). Meth Proyect. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.methproject.org
Meth users often hallucinate that bugs are crawling under their skin and try to dig them out, leaving open sores
Methyl
group
Methamphetamine is a member of the phenethylamine family, which includes other substances that may be stimulants, entactogens or hallucinogens.

Methamphetamine is N,a-dimethylphenethylamine.
Molecular formula: C10H15N
Molecular weight: 149.2 g/mol
The effects from meth may change depending on how it is used.

If it is smoked or injected intravenously, the person will feel a strong sensation such as a vibration or 'rush', which later decreases in a few minutes.

Those who snort or swallow meth experience a feeling of euphoria that is just temporary.

People who use Meth will become more talkative, confident and other times paranoid, aggressive and agitated.
What Are the Effects of Methamphetamine Use?
Helmenstine, A. (n.d.). Crystal Meth Facts - Methamphetamine Information.About.com Chemistry - Chemistry Projects, Homework Helm, Periodic Table. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://chemistry.about.com/od/medicalhealth/a/crystalmeth.htm
Rampton, F. (n.d.). Ingredients of Meth.Lynn Police Department. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from http://www.lynnpolice.org/ingredients_of_meth.htm
Richards, J. (n.d.). Methamphetamine Toxicity. Medscape. Retrieved March 9, 2013, from emedicine.medscape.com/article/820918-overview
History of Crystal Meth. (n.d.). Crystal Meth Addiction, Crystal Meth Information, Crystal Meth Addiction Treatment. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://www.crystalmethaddiction.org/History
Poor hygiene
+
Toxins form the drug escaping through the pores
+
Restricted blood flow
=
Severe Breakouts
Meth cuts off healthy flow of blood to the skin, so open sores take longer to heal and become infected more easily
Users who smoke Meth often have burns on their lips and around their mouths because of overheated pipes and hot smoke touching their skin.
Social Impacts & Environmental Aspects of Methamphetamine. (n.d.). Network Environmental Systems, Inc. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from nesglobal.net/files/Army%20Syp%202-05%20SocialImpactsfrom
- Meth has a remarkable impact on today’s society; more tan a substance- abuse issue

- Methamphetamine is one of the most addictive and abused drug

- Meth is “home grown”- production is created effortless creating an international epidemic
Meth’s impacts on society
are diverse and significant:
Identity, mail, and
property theft
Child endangerment
and abuse
Public Safety
Ammonia Releases
If I try meth, will I become an addict?
Unless you want to end up like this...
NEVER TRY METH, NOT EVEN ONCE
Statistics

The neurons in the brain exert some chemicals named dopamine and norepinephrine that maintain you active, but after taking some meth this makes the cleft between each neuron over flooded with this chemicals without retaking so this makes you have a feeling of euphoria, intensifying emotions, altering self-esteem, and increasing alertness, aggression, and sexual appetite. After some time this chemicals are gone ,so now the person suffers an extremely depression, and this made cause to make bad decisions.
Why do you feel euphoric, while consuming meth?
Origin
The history of methamphetamine starts since 100 years ago when a Japanese pharmacologist got to synthesize and create it in 1919.

The drug was developed from its parent drug, amphetamine, and was used originally in nasal decongestants and bronchial inhalers.
WWll

It started in WWII, where it was given to soldiers to fight against fatigue and hunger.
Amphetamine, which is where methamphetamine was created from, was presented as medicine, but the stimulant, euphoric, and anorectic effects of amphetamine were quickly recognized and it started to be abused.



It was discovered that amphetamine made better the intellectual performance and helped people be more alert and awake. So, due to this, Amphetamines were used in World War II for it to increase the attention and awakeness of soldiers.
I930s
1937
The 90's
In the late 1950s, amphetamines started to be used by students, athletes and many other people for weight loss because the drug makes the appetite decrease.

In the 1960’s, this drug was known as a dangerous drug that threatened the health of the people who consumed it.


It was until the “Controlled Substance Act” of 1970 got to regulate how amphetamine was to be manufactured, but in spite of them trying to decrease its production, illegal methamphetamine use is still increasing.
Illegal Meth Lab
During the 1980’s there were many laboratories that produced crystal meth in the Southern of California.

In the 1990's the purchase of the chemicals used to produce crystal meth was still legal, which caused the traffic of many of this drug. For this reason, the government of the USA controlled more the selling of those chemicals.
Student
consuming
meth
Today
Now a day, pseudoephedrine products (vital chemical for crystal meth production) are limited and controlled in pharmacies in order to stop or decrease the crystal meth production.

The statistics of the consumption of crytsal meth, have been increasing for the last years, specially in students and women.

There are many any associations that inform people about crystal meth and its effects. Ex: Montana Meth Project
Since the past 25 years, the use of methamphetamine has increased in a rapid rate throughout in the entire world.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimated that, on a worldwide view, 500 metric tons of amphetamine-type stimulants, which includes methamphetamine, were produced in a year with nearly 24.7 million abusers.
The United States government informed in 2008 that approximately 13 million people over the age of 12 have used methamphetamine and that 529,000 of those are use it regularily.
In 2007, 4.5% of American high-school seniors and 4.1% of tenth grade students used methamphetamine at least once in their life.
In the United States, the percentage of the people who were undergoing a drug treatment due to methamphetamine and amphetamine abuse tripled from 3% in 1996 to 9% in 2006.
The Czech Republic, Sweden, Finland, Slovakia, Latvia, and the USA are the countries that reported to have more people seeking for drug abuse treatment, in fact, 20-60% of the people in treatment are meth users.
Approximately 1.3 million people were using Crystal Meth between the year 2004 - 2005 and 512,000 reported using Crystal Meth in the last month this Crystal Meth statistic was taken.
Methamphetamine Use in the past year among U.S. citizens with an age of 12 or older, in the years 2002-2004
Soil Fertility in the U.S.A
• Ammonia gas is a key element in methamphetamine's production
• Meth producers usually have to steal the tanks to obtain such gas
o As a result, tanks, pipes, and valves get damaged, causing large releases
• Ammonia is very dangerous since is flammable/explosive and difficult to extinguish
• Common targets
o Farms, cold-storage facilities, blue-print shops, bakeries, industrial refrigeration systems, underground pipelines, railcars
• Insufficient attention to ammonia-theft scenarios causes poor security measures
The Different faces of Methamphetamine
• In many states nearly 50% of children with child protective services are cause by the exposure of such kids to Meth Labs
• Over 30% of child abuse & family violence cases involve meth abuse
• Children living in active meth labs are injured or killed by meth lab fires, explosions, chemical use or from failing to look after them
Children Injured or Killed
• Around 5 labs explode and/or catch fire weekly• Many first responders injured at meth labs; some killed or permanently disabled• Ammonia thefts have forced mass evacuations• Public agency workers exposed to chemicals in trash and roadside dumps• Lab wastes in landfills, transfer stations and garbage trucks have caught fire• Hunters/campers assaulted & shot at by meth cookers
• Estimates indicate 70%+ of identity theft and 90% of mail theft are committed by meth addicts
o Evidence of identify theft activities found at many labs
• Meth is often involved in violent crimes
o Many law enforcement agencies report that 60%+ of auto theft and most property crimes involve meth
• Investigation efforts are fragmented between and within agencies
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