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Native Americans

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Nykala Hill

on 17 July 2015

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Transcript of Native Americans

Native Americans
Native American Food
Perception of Self and Self-worth
Identity struggles
Native American Music & Dance
NATIVE AMERICAN COMMUNICATION
Before the Europeans Came

20 to 40 million Native Americans

Approximately 1000 languages

250 of those spoken in present day USA

Languages varied tremendously

Language Family Map

Similarities found by linguists

Differences between others

Grouped into families

North America

More linguistic variety than Europe

Present day US was home to several prevalent languages families

Europe had only two

www.cogsi.indiana.edu
Conclusion
Counseling tends to work well with Native Americans
Interpersonal Relationships
Communal identity
Close tribe ties
Interdependence
Matriarchial and matrilineal structure to patriarchial power
Cooperation
Shared child-rearing
Time Orientation
Flexible
Unstructured
Patience
Being rather than becoming
Present-time oriented
References
Stacey's
Advocacy Unlimited. (n.d.). Developing cultural competency: Cultural knowledge, awareness, sensitivity, competence. Retrieved from http://www.mindlink.org/online_course/cultural_competency_6.html
Brammer, R. (2012). Diversity in counseling (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Estes, L., & Rosenfelt, S. (Producers), & Eyre, C. (Director). (1998). Smoke Signals [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax Films.
Traditional native american values and behaviors. (n.d). Retrieved from http://nwindian.evergreen.edu/curriculum/valuesbehaviors.pdf
Youtube.com. (2011). Native americans in tallinn. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=GjUCfUUzlf0
Nykala's
Brammer, R. (2012). Diversity in counseling (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Gallagher, C. (2008). Native Americans: remembrance, reconciliation and restoration. Studies In World Christianity, 14233-240. doi:10.3366/E1354990108000270
LOMAWAIMA, K. T. (2013). The Mutuality of Citizenship and Sovereignty. American Indian Quarterly, 37(3), 330-351. doi:10.1353/aiq.2013.0035
Castile, G. P. (1996). The commodification of indian identity. American Anthropologist, 98(4), 743-749. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.ccu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/198054225?accountid=10200
Ralf, D. (1998) The rough faced girl. April, 13. Puffin Books

Deborah's
American Indians today. Retrieved from http://www.american-indians.net/today.htm
Brammer, R. (2012). Diversity in counseling. Brooks/Cole. Belmont, CA 174,181,184, 190,191-192,196
Garrett, M.T., & Pichette, E. F. (2000). Red as an apple: Native American acculturation and counseling with or without reservation. Journal of Counseling & Development, (78) 10- 13
Heinrich, R. K., Corbine, J. L., & Thomas, K. R. (1990). Counseling native americans. Journal of Counseling & Development. (69) 132
Life on the reservation. Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/us/40d.asp
Native american history. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/native-american- history/native-american-cultures
Native american languages. Retrieved from http://www.cogsci.indiana.edu/farg/rehling/nativeAm/ling.html
Perception of Environment and Universe
Chief Seattle's Letter
“As a Native American woman (Tsa-la-gi or Cherokee), I was raised to understand that I was related to a very large human family and an even larger created cosmos. Native people speak of all of our relations to describe not only the human family, but the four-legged and other creatures who share this fragile earth with us.” (Gallagher, 2008, p.3)
"This we know: the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth. All things are connected like the blood that unites us all. Man did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself"
"With all things and in all things, we are relatives" (Brammer, 2012, p.182).
NATIVE AMERICAN COMMUNICATION
Indigenous Language Families of North America
Map of nine language families

Had significant presence in continental US

Nearly all extended to Canada or Mexico

Areas shaded are not political regions

No central governmental rule

Remember that languages within a language family can be very diverse
NATIVE AMERICAN COMMUNICATION
Map of Nine Language Families

Use of sign language
NATIVE AMERICAN COMMUNICATION
Post European Occupation
Drastic reduction in the Population

Diseases brought over by Europeans

Perceived to be weak

Work, sow and adopt European ways

Oppression and mass murder (1492-1890)

Survivors evicted from their home land
"We Shall Remain: Trail of Tears"
Native American Communication
Post European Occupation
Life On the Reservation
Boarding Schools

Native American prohibited from speaking their native language

Lost their communal identity

For some tribes, traditional knowledge can be fully communicated only in the tribal language

Loss of language has a profound effect on the maintenance of Native American culture
Native American Communication
Effects of European Oppression
Loss of important early history of the community

Loss of cultural and social identity of the community

Often seen as a symbol of defeat

Spiritual, and intellectual life

People's history is prevented from being passed down.

Native American Communication
1990 Native American Languages Act

Congressional act

Encourage and support for the use of native languages in schools

Official right and status given to use their native language for business purposes

Supports proficiency in native languages

Encourages schools to include native languages in the curriculum

20 of the 175 existing Native American languages are being passed down from mother to child

300-400 languages have already been lost forever

Less diverse than they were 100 years ago
Today’s Native American
Native American Counseling Concerns

ACCULTURATION
Knowing client’s cultural identification

Do not make assumptions
Traditional
Bi-cultural
Assimilated

Five Domains to assess cultural information
Identity
Action
Spiritual
Values
Social-Environment

Native American Stories

Native American Acculturation Assessment Scale

Brammer (2012); Garrett & Pichette (2000)
NATIVE AMERICAN COUNSELING CONCERNS
INTERGENERATIONAL TRAUMA
Historical Traumatic Events

Transmitted through descendants

Three levels
Individual
Familial
Community

Psychological Effects
NATIVE AMERICAN COUNSELING CONCERNS
INTERGENERATIONAL TRAUMA
Other Problems
Poverty

Higher mortality rates
Tobacco & Alcohol Abuse

Suicide and homicide

Death from diseases



NATIVE AMERICAN COUNSELING CONCERNS
INTERGENERATIONAL TRAUMA
Women Concerns

Loss of matriarchal rituals

Rape
“Training”

High fertility rate

High single mother births

Victims of domestic violence



NATIVE AMERICAN COUNSELING CONCERNS
Mental Health
Depression

Suicide

Alcohol Use

Cultural Factors

NATIVE AMERICAN COUNSELING INTERVENTIONS
Individual/Group Counseling
Individual
Native American attitudes towards people

Build rapport
Time & patience
Show desire to include client’s family

Family/Group
Special skills & knowledge needed for some groups

Tribal rituals & Customs
Sweat Lodge
Talking Circle

Focus on restorative/healing interventions

Adopt a synergistic orientation

NATIVE AMERICAN COUNSELING INTERVENTIONS
Individual/Group Counseling
Family/Group

Develop a relationship first
Respect silence
Speak slowly & carefully
Do not interrupt
Show respect for client’s culture
Maintain strict confidence
Allow session to be at the client’s pace

Spirituality

Counselor Involvement

Be prepared to make a cultural shift/adjustment to client’s background
Mere tolerance is not enough
Seek out exposure to Native American cultural activities

This is my step-sister who is Cherokee!
-Stacey
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