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Transcript of Product Design
A set of principles concerned with the nature and appreciation of beauty, esp. in art.
Processes and Manufacture
The way rays of light reflect off the product.
As light reflects of a product it creates lines in specific areas due to the form
A repeated decorative design
A part considered in relation to the whole
A process which allows large quantities of plastic components to be made quickly
A widely used industrial process used to mould plastics. It consists of a thin sheet of plastic being compressed against a mould
A process where a softened thermoplastic is forced on to a mould's surface using compressed air
The visible shape or configuration of something.
To set in opposition in order to show or emphasize differences
Sprue marks, draw angles, mould split lines, ejection pin marks, injection mark. webs are used for strength. A variety of surface finishes is possible from high quality shiny finish to a textures finish
If the mould isn't at the right standard or quality then it can be expensive to replace
Alot have to be produced to make the process worthwhile
It can be mass produced once a mould is in place which will boost profits
Intricate shapes and a variety of colours can be produced
It doesn't require much man power as machines produce the products
Resistant to wear
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed, cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section.
The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex cross-sections and work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses.
Smooth-walled long sections with uniform thickness. Line texturisation may be evident, particularly on extruded metal products. complex irregular profiles are produced for products such as window frames and curtain rail.
The extrusion speed is low as compare to roll forming process.
There is a limiting factor for the creation of die and press sizes.
In terms of production, rolling process is superior to extrusion process.
The cost of tooling is high.
Extrusion process gives us high amount of process waste as compare to rolling process
Examples of products produced by this process are: collapsible tubes, fire extinguisher cases, shock absorber cylinders and gear blanks.
Ski poles are also extruded in thermoplastics
A process most often used for shaping thermosetting plastics such as phenol-fomalehyde and urea-formalehyde
Walls of uniform thickness usually 3-6 mm. draft of 1 minimum required. flashed on edges. Quality finish on female mould surface
•Produces more intricate parts
•Fewer knit lines on final product
•Low tooling costs
No delicate pieces
Uneven parting lines
High initial investment
secondary operations (e.g. trimming)
Mold depth is limited
Vacuum forming is a widely used industrial process used to mould plastics. The thin plastic sheet used in the process is process produced in a variety of colours.
Thin sheet material is normally used. Any patterns or textures are transferred from the mould onto the product surface. Venting holes cause 'pips' on the surface. Tapers are quite pronounced and there may be evidence of thinning on the side surfaces
Packaging items with complex deep shapes are made in this way, for example trays, dishes and margarine containers. Other examples include toys, dishes, lighting panels
Press forming involves squeezing sheet metal between two matched metal moulds (dies)
Sudden directional changes, i.e sharp bends and deep draws, are to minimize overstretching the walls of the product. different operations, e.g flanges, ribs, peircing, can be identified
Products used in many everyday activities are easily identifiable. These range from pans, kettles and stainless steal kitchen sinks to car bodies and aircraft panels.
The low forming pressures means comparatively low cost tooling
As moulds can be manufactured from inexpensive materials, tool manufacturing lead times can be relatively short
Secondary operations are usually required to trim the formed sheet into the finished part
Uneven sections may result from the stretching process resulting in potential weak spots
Inability to hold tolerances
Identify and justify aspects
How exactly will you find out?
How will it be shown?
Value for money
economies of scale
Type of CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture)
Additive manufacturing processes – Layers of material are built up to create a 3D model from a CAD file. Unlike workshop processes such as milling and turning which are subtractive processes, removing material to produce a 3D model.
Prototypes are functional and can be trialled and tested for aspects such as: safety, reliability, form, fit, durability and stress/heat/chemical resistance. This allows potential problems to be identified early on in the design process.
Faster than normal model making strategies.Speeds up the development process allowing designs to reach the marketplace quicker.
Models are highly detailed and accurate.
Models can show ‘ribbing’ of layers and require finishing.
Set-up costs are high.
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
Often referred to as 3D printing.
Thermoplastics that can be used are: ABS, PC and PLC.
Cheapest of the RP methods
Structural supports may need to be added in CAD file depending on shape of model. These can then be snapped off after model had been produced.
Very slow process compared with other RP methods.
Method: thermoplastics are fed through a heated nozzle and extruded to form a 3D model, layer-by-layer. Each molten layer bonds to the solidified one below.
Liquid photopolymer – photo-sensitive epoxy resin (thermosetting) is cured in layers using a UV laser, reflected onto the resin layer using movable mirrors.
Structureal supprot may be needed
Expensive but quick RP process.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Layers of metal, thermoplastic & ceramic powder such as nylon, polystyrene, steel and titanium are selectively melted using a laser.
(Will it sell?)
This emphasizes the requirements of the user, the purchaser and the producing company, e.g. user groups, price, product life, maintenance, materials, production timescale, manufacturing methods and function.
(Can it be made?)
This translates some of the requirements on the marketing specification into precise descriptions, setting limits as well as giving values and measurements. It deals with the more physical properties of the product, e.g. power ratings, dimensions and essential properties of materials.
Will it work?
This deals with the desired outputs of a product, e.g. what function it must fufil, ease of use by a range of people, how well the product performs in different environments, how durable and robust the product is or how safe the product is when in use.
(Is it safe and legal)
This should ensure that the product complies with legal and commercial requirements and that it is safe to use by the public. Things like British standards, industry standards, statutory and intellectual property rights must all be observed.
Achieving accuracy in industries.
Market shares and industry presence.
Capable of high detail and thin walls.
Good surface finish.
Some war page, shrinkage and curl due to phase change.
Limited materials (Photo polymers).
Support structures always needed. Removal of support structures can be difficult.
The main advantage is that the fabricated prototypes are porous (typically 60% of the density of molded parts), thus impairing their strength and surface finish.
Variety of materials.
No post curing required.
Fast build times.
Limited use of support structures.
Mechanical properties of Nylon & Polycarbonate parts.
Rough surface finish.
Mechanical properties below those achieved in injection molding process for same material.
Many build variables, complex operation.
Material changeover difficult compared to FDM & SLA.
Some post-processing / finishing required.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
No post curing.
Variety of materials.
Easy material changeover.
Office environment friendly.
Low end, economical machines.
Not good for small features, details and thin walls.
Supports required on some materials / geometries.
Support design / integration / removal is difficult.
Slow on large / dense parts.
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
Intellectual Property rights
Reasons why companies register their name as trademark:
Exclusivity of product/company.
Prevent illegal use of logo/name.
i.e. logos, brands, colour schemes
Reasons why companies patent their designs:
Protect company rights.
Prevent idea/patent being copied.
Can lease design.
i.e. mechanisms, workings, manufacture process e.g. the way a lightbulb works
Idea generation techniques
The transfer of the design basis or baseline into specifications for the product, its components, packaging, labeling, and the manufacturing and quality assurance procedures, methods, specifications, etc., so that the product can be produced using production methods
Design-by-analogy is well-recognized for its power in innovation processes. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in the formation of analogies is important for understanding the concept generation process. This paper takes a distinctive interdisciplinary route to combine research in cognitive psychology and design to develop a more complete understanding design-by-analogy and to
provide the basis for formal method development.
Lateral thinking is a capacity to address conventional thoughts and assumptions related to a particular problem from a different or unorthodox angle…A literal approach to design still requires an imaginative approach, but tends to concentrate on more obvious aspects – a direct interpretation of meaning….In generating ideas for a design it is worthwhile exploring both aspects of literal and lateral thought patterns and, where possible, to instigate a hybrid approach of the thinking methods.
1. A method of shared problem solving in which all members of a group spontaneously contribute ideas.
2. A similar process undertaken by a person to solve a problem by rapidly generating a variety of possible solutions.
A mind map is a diagram used to visually outline information.
The cost of production
One off production
Batch production (jigs, templates,patterns)
Cell production (flexible manufacturing)
Just in time production
CAD/CAM and CNC machining
The design process
Identifying needs, was and problems
Open and closed design briefs
The design specification (technical, performance, market)
Members of a typical design team
Design development considerations
Product planning and product strategy
(user trips, observations, testing, comparison, check specification)
A typical model for the design process
Marketing or selling
Designing for people
(anthropometrics, psychology, physiology)
Defining the market
Benefits of product design
Fashion,style and fads
Needs and wants
Factors that influence design factors
The design brief
Primary and secondary functions
Economic considerations, costs (fixed and variable)
Fashion and style
Fitnesss for purpose
Environmental considerations (sustainable design, recycling)
Consumer demands (technology push/consumer pull)
Social expectations, social responsibilities and social behaviour
Market opportunity, niche marketing
Research and development
Safety and legislation
Designing for manufacture
Choosing a material
The cost of production
Rotational moulding (plastic)
Piercing and blanking
Joining metal (welding, riveting, bolts, screws, adhesives)
Sand casting (metal)
Forging and drop forging (metal)
Finishing metal (electroplating, paint, laquer)
Spindle moulding (wood)
Jointing (wood) - carcase and frame construction
More flexible as departments can work together
They are more difficult to manage
Allows for easy changes in the design process
Linear approach (each department does their bit and then they hand it over to the next, little communication)
Easier to manage
+Pay less for storage as parts are delivered just as the part is running out
-Are relying on other companies to deliver the goods
+Saves on storage
-Relies on infrastructure
+Flexible to meet changes in demand
Peoples jobs can overlap
Reduces human error due to workers doing a variety of jobs
Other people can cover for those who are off
line production is when only one specific product is made
it is fast as the machines are set up in a line
paper factory made specifically for paper
Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
Batch production is a technique used in manufacturing, in which the object in question is created stage by stage over a series of workstations, and different batches of products are made.
involves producing custom work, such as a one-off product for a specific customer or a small batch of work in quantities usually less than those of mass-market products.
Planned obsolescence or built-in obsolescence in industrial design is a policy of planning or designing a product with a limited useful life, so it will become obsolete, that is, unfashionable or no longer functional after a certain period of time.
The extra power or extra capacity that a product has is referred to as redundancy. Redundancy is often built in to a product as a marketing tool or a selling feature.
The process of making things smaller to make them better.
Companies and designers must actively look for opportunities to use new technology otherwise their products will begin to look dated and perhaps be regarded as obsolete.
Ergonomics is the study of how humans interact with their environments and the products in them. Look at pg 117
Intellectual Property Rights