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Brain Development Timeline

Timeline showcasing brain development from birth until death

Jesse Squier

on 21 December 2012

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Transcript of Brain Development Timeline

From the Womb to the Tomb Prenatal Birth Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Formation of the brain cells begins after the basic brain structure is developed
By the 5th week, the embryo starts cell division which creates the cerebral hemispheres
Synapses begin forming
Myelination of neurons in the brain begins after 6 months and continues through to adulthood
Three Trimesters
1st - brain cells begin to divide at the tip of the embryo and a tube is formed, which expands slowing to form the brain and spinal cord; then, brain cells multiply quickly
3rd week: neural groove is formed which later becomes the primary brain structure
2nd - the brain is fully developed but not full size so the baby can be delivered safely; 6 layers of the cerebral cortex and almost all the neurons within the central nervous system are present
3rd - the brain starts to develop convolusions due to the massive amount of information being stored during this period as it readies to be born
The folds denses the brain so it can be safely delivered out of the womb At birth, the brain weights around 300 grams; this increases across the next four years to about 1200 grams
The brain experiences a rapid period of growth; this includes the use of all sensory experiences to form any connection that the early brain can
Only the most important nerves for basic survival are myelinated at birth, such as the reflexes and the auditory and visual nerves; however, as the baby grows, so too does the amount of myelinated regions
New stimuli cause the baby's brain to develop a synapses; in addition, the dendrites of the baby's neurons multiply and grow as it learns and experiences new things
Stress and emotional neglect can retard a baby's brain development at this point Myelination continues to occur
During the first 2 years of life, the motor tract, this myelination allows the child to have great control over its arms, legs, and body
1 thousand trillion brain cell connections have been formed by the age of 3
Neurons continue their movement into their position in the brain; while this usually determines what each cell does, if need be then neurons of one part of the brain can take over for neurons in another part of the brain
What a child does in this stage determines how a brain develops
If they interact with others, then their brain will be wired to be social in the future; if they get injured often, they will have less fear of it in the future
In the same vein, if a child does not use their brain cells, they will have weak ones in those areas, such as not playing with others leading to a child having difficulty socializing in the future
The nutrition of the child also helps determine its brain development; without the proper amount of proteins, iron, and calories, the brain will under-develop
Stimuli of all kinds causes the brain to continue in creating connections so that the child may function
Routines help especially at this stage, by allowing the brain to become familiar with various types of activities, through the repetition caused by the routine Final stages of myelination in the frontal lobes are complete in early adolescence
By around age 14, the adolescent's brain should reach the weight of an adult brain due to the accunulation of myelin and dendritic branch
It is at this time that social conscience, insight, judgement, and reasoning are beginning to develop and show potential
The adolescent's frontal lobes are increasingly active in a way that allows them to consider and compare several things in the mind
Pruning process occurs in the brain that causes the density of synapses to decline; however, this does not interrupt the synapses formation which continues to increase from experiences that occur during adolescence
Prefrontal cortex develops more as reasoning and judgement is introduced during adolescence Brain Development Prenatal Birth Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Death The growing of new neurons is slowed down dramatically, almost to the point of appearing nonexistent
The brain reshapes itself throughout adulthood, expanding based on the continual new experiences the person has; however, the growth of the neurons is not as great as it was previously
Keeping the brain active is important, as it will aid in preventing brain decay later on in life Prenatal Brain Development Over Time
<http://www.beginbeforebirth.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Fetal-brain1.jpg> Prenatal Brain at 4 Weeks
<https://www.dana.org/uploadedImages/Images/Spotlight_Images/DanaGuide_CH05_P065a_spot.jpg> Fetus's Brain Development
<http://www.brainhealthandpuzzles.com/images/Pre_natal_brain_development.jpg> Brain at Infancy
<http://www.aurorahealthcare.org/healthgate/images/Infant_brain.jpg> Stages of Development for an Infant of Core Nervous System Skills
<http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_KLdnO2_FAow/SGiPOQ-SLrI/AAAAAAAAAa4/7jCB678OKK8/s400/Stages%2Bof%2BBrain%2BDevelopment%2Bin%2Ban%2BInfant.jpg> Synapse Formation Over Time Due to Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood
<http://www.azftf.gov/Why/Evidence/PublishingImages/synapse-formation.gif> Parts and Lobes of the Brain
<http://montessorimuddle.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Lobes_of_the_brain-full.png The Adolescent Brain
<http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_4JOqUxVylL0/SEAibi1kkoI/AAAAAAAAAL4/vBRkNzAucQk/s400/adolescent%2Bbrain.jpg> Adolescent Brain
<http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_aRE25RtcVM8/TGM-I0slHhI/AAAAAAAADNE/q_KH26MAghw/s1600/brain1.jpg> Infant Brain
<http://www.medicalartlibrary.com/images/baby-brain-side.jpg> Adult Brain
<http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&tbo=d&authuser=0&biw=1280&bih=709&tbm=isch&tbnid=ZFksopFO7e01WM:&imgrefurl=http://www.beliefnet.com/healthandhealing/getcontent.aspx%3Fcid%3D11911&docid=uNwPiyhiNx-pKM&imgurl=http://www.beliefnet.com/healthandhealing/images/brain_man_sketch.jpg&w=300&h=400&ei=p9bTUNvwH-jC0AHO04DgCg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=80&vpy=136&dur=1112&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=123&ty=110&sig=116566965413632645052&page=1&tbnh=150&tbnw=113&start=0&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:105> Neuron Production in Adult Brains
<http://www.bioedonline.org/hot-topics/images/neurogenesis.gif> Difference between the child's brain's (left) functional connectives and the adult's (right)
<http://neurologicalcorrelates.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/pnas-maturing-brain-scan.jpeg> Works Cited
In Class Notes
http://www.brainhealthandpuzzles.com/development_of_brain.html and the rest of the site Prenatal to Postnatal Brain Development
<http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a0/Human_Brain_Development_Timeline_Image.jpg> Death As the body beings to approach death, the brain begins to decay
As the neurons become older, a person becomes more susceptible to ailments such as strokes, dementia, and Alzheimer's
In order to help curb brain decay, a person must keep their mind active as much as possible, as it allows the dendrites to continue to attempt to grow, which is better than them not growing and instead dieing off By Jesse D Squier (Per 9), Scott Corradi (Per 9), & Davis Marquez-Pasco (Per 1)
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