Transcript of Absoluteism vs. Enlightenment
Julia Chamberlain Absolutism vs. The Enlightenment Things that were influential in the Enlightenment King Louis XIV was an absolute ruler because he believed in Divine Right. He often called himself the Sun King and said "I am the state." Louis did not allow the Estates General, a medieval assembly made up of representatives of all social classes, to meet at all. As a result the Estates General were unable to limit Louis royal power. He built a large French national army by defeating the nobles private armies, and he limited the power of nobles by giving them high posts in the royal court at the Palace of Versailles and making them generals in his army. King Louis XIV also increased the size of the government. King Louis XIV English Civil War Napolean Bonaparte King Louis XIV spent too much money on expensive wars to gain more territory, on himself, and on his luxurious living style. He persecuted religious minorities, which damaged a huge part of his work force because most of them were skilled workers and merchants. The overall effect of deficit spending, spending large amount of money on unnecessary wars and luxuries like Versailles, is severe economic issues later. These issues are a major cause of the French revolution. King Louis XIV's mistakes Military General Napolean's rise to power Eighteenth-century movement that emphasized science and reason to improve society. The Enlightenment Mary Wollstonecraft Baron de Montesqueiu John Locke Thomas Hobbes Mary Wollstonecraft Baron de Montesqueiu Thomas Hobbes John Locke believed that people were basically responsible and moral and that "Life, Liberty, and Property" were natural rights that belonged to them from birth. He put together a government in order to protect the peoples rights. This government was a limited government that was accepted by the people and if the government fails in protecting its citizens and their rights, the people have a right to overthrow the government. John Locke People who were influential in the enlightenment Physiocrats looked for natural laws to define a rational economic system. They rejected mercantilism, which required government regulation in order to gain a favorable balance of trade. They developed Laissez Faire economics. This was a government that would interfere with businesses very little. Real wealth came from making the land more productive; agriculture, mining, and logging produced new wealth. A free trade system was developed with no tariffs or taxes on trade. Economic Thinking The Scientific Revolution of the 1500s and the 1600s changed the way people in Europe looked at the world. In the Scientific Revolution they came up with vaccines against old diseases such as the plague and smallpox. Scientific success convinced the educated Europeans of the power of human reason, and they used reason to discover natural laws that govern human nature in an attempt to solve problems of the society. Scientific Revolution As England increased its control on some American colonies, some colonist called upon Enlightenment ideas of natural right as reasons for independence and some colonists believed that the increasingly oppressive polices England enforced on colonies violated their natural rights. In the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson clearly uses Locke's belief in the right to "... life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," and other reasons for forming theeir own government. American Revolution Aspects of the Enlightenment in the US Constitution All kings after Louis XVI were incompetent. Louis XVI hired Jacque Necker as his financial advisor, but he fired Jacque as soon as he suggested taxing the first two estates. As conditions worsened, Louis XVI called upon the Estates General for the first time in 175 years to help him solve the financial crisis. King Louis XVI Glorious Revolution How both events contributed Constitutional Government in England The English Bill of Rights was a bill that ensured the superiority of the Parliament over the monarchy. It required royalty to periodically call Parliament and it gave the citizens some basic rights. The Bill of Rights also gave the House of Commons Power of the Purse, which is control over money so there would be no more deficit spending, and it established Habeus Corpus, the law that people could not be put in jail without being charged with a specific crime, so the rulers could no longer arrest innocent people. English Bill of Rights Emperor Napolean held a plebiscite, which was a ballot where the people could vote if they wanted him to be Emperor. Every time the held a plebiscite the large majority of people voted yes. Napolean gained his power legally as a result of Popular Sovereignty and his leadership provided the people with a sense of stability that had been missing for many years. How he made his power more legitimate. Napolean reinforced his power by strengthening the central government and principles of order and security replaced the ideas of liberty and equality. He encouraged new industries to help economic growth, set up a system of public schools, and made peace with the Catholic Church. Napolean also encouraged emigres to return with an oath of loyalty and he allowed peasants to keep the land they gained during the Revolution. He offered jobs to the people most qualified. These actions won him the favor of people across all class lines. Changes to French government The Napoleonic Code embraced Enlightenment principles such as equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and advancement based on merit. It eliminated old fuedal traditions and systems but it also eliminated most of the rights women had gained from the Revolution by giving men full authority over families again. Napoleonic Code The French military was one of the greatest and most powerful in the world at that time. Napolean valued rapid military movements, using his large armies very effectively, and developed new plans for each battle. His military success allowed him to build a large French empire in Europe including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy, the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), parts of Prussia, and Poland. He put his relatives and friends into positions of power around Europe and forced alliances across the continent. As Napolean conquered all of these places his army continued to grow bigger because foreign soldiers and supplies were being added to it. Military successes England was the only country that never was in French control. Britain only had a small army but depended on its large navy. Napolean tried to ruin Britains economy by using his Continental system, which is when Napolean demanded all of the other country's to stop trading with Britain, but England did more damage with there blockade then France did with the Continental system. Britain Women were oppressed during the early Enlightenment, where their natural rights only existed in areas of home and family. In 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft published "A Vindication of the Rights of Women" in which she said that a woman should be able to decide what is in her own interest and not be dependent on her husband. She also wanted equal education for girls and boys so women could have more equality with men in public life. Baron de Montesqueiu was a Frenchman who studied European governments and became critical of absolute monarchy while admiring England's limited monarchy. He thought that the government should be divided into the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches in order to protect the people from tyranny. He believed in separation of powers and that each branch should be able to check the power of the other two through checks and balances. Thomas Hobbes thought that people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; and that if they were not controlled, they would fight, rob, and hurt one another. Because of these thoughts, people entered a social contract where they gave up their free state of nature in order to build an organized society, and only an absolute monarch could maintain this type of order. Popular Sovereignty: all government power comes from the people, and the people decide that they will represent themselves in the government; "We the People of the United States..."Full transcript
Federal Republic: Power is divided between a federal/national government, and the states.
A separation of power between legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
A Bill of Rights: The first ten amendments establish citizens' basic rights. Versailles was a symbol of Louis XIV's power and wealth. He spent 1.5 billion dollars from the royal treasury on this palace and it became a work of architectural genius. It allowed Louis to keep 10,000 Nobels nearby, so he could keep an eye on them. In Versailles everything (Dress, conduct, and events) were structured, routine, and formal. Daily life was dominated by daily ceremonies that the nobels felt a huge privilege to be a key part of. In order to increase his importance, there were rituals for everything Louis did from the time he woke up to the time he went to sleep. Palace of Versailles Absolutism is when a ruler or monarch rules with total power. Usually they believe they are entitled to absolute power because of Divine Right, which is when the ruler believes God gave them the right to rule with absolute power. Absolutism Napoleans downfall The National Assembly was formed when representatives from the third estate all brought Cahiers, which are lists of grievances that people had against the first and second estates. The third estate was lead by bourgeoisie determined to bring reforms. They also wanted to vote individually instead of a group vote, but until this point in French history, each estate only got one vote, so the third estate was usually outvoted two to one. The higher estates refused to change the system and as a result of this injustice, the third estate declared themselves the National Assembly and wrote a new constitution. The fact that the National Assembly represented 98% of the population automatically gave it some political power. When King Louis XVI locked the doors to the National Assembly meeting house, they went and met on the nearby tennis court and made the Tennis Court Oath, a pledge that they would keep working together and establish a new and fair constitution. Louis XVI said he accepted the National Assembly but he placed armies around the city. The National Assembly and angry citizens formed angry mobs and a citizens army. The National Assembly When Charles I inherited the throne he tried to rule with absolute power. In response to this, Parliament, a medieval assembly made up of representatives of noble families that shared power with the king, tried and executed the chief ministers of Charles I. Charles stormed the House of Commons, arrested certain leaders, and dissolved Parliament. Parliament raised a Parliamentary army called the Roundheads and war broke out between the Roundheads and the royal army called Cavaliers. The Roundheads were victorious and Parliament seized the power of the government and Charles I was executed. James II came into power and tried to take more power for the monarchy. The Parliament isnt happy with this and invites William and Mary of Orange to rule England. When they land with their army James II fled England. William and Mary accepted the Bill of Rights and agreed to work with the Parliament. The Glorious Revolution was a bloodless revolution, which means that no one was killed during it. In both events, Parliament was victorious over absolutism and because of this, Parliament was able to govern from that point on and later developed constitutional government and a limited monarchy. Napoleaon was born in Corsica, a french ruled island in the Mediterranian and he came from a family of minor nobles with little money. He started training for a military career in France at age 9. He favored the Jacobins and the republican rule, but he was always in favor of the side that was winning. Napolean was an ambitious 20 year old Lieutenant during the early battles and he rose quickly in rank as he scored a series of victories such as driving the British navy out of the port of Toulon, victories over Austria, and capturing a lot of Northern Italy. He was defeated sometimes, but he always managed to keep that information from getting to the people of France. Napoleans victories gave him a great reputation witht he people of France. After the execution of Maximilien Robespierre, another new government was made. It was called the Directory. It was a very weak government and Napolean quickly overthrew it and formed the Consulate, a three-person governing board in which he took the title of First Consul. Within a couple of year he gained enough power to call himself the Emperor of France. Napoleans downfall began when the Spanish remained loyal to their former king and started using guerilla warfare, which were sneak attacks, to attack the troops. This predicament kept a lot of soldiers tied down in Spain when they were needed elsewhere. Napoleans biggest mistake was his invasion of Russia. The Czar of Russia withdrew his country from the Continental System and Napolean decided to invade Russia. As the Russians retreated, they followed a "scorched earth" policy where they burned crops and villages as they retreated. The Grand Army suffered from lack of food and shelter as the Russians were striking them with sneak attacks. At the end Napolean returned with 10,00 of the original 400,000 soldiers. When the Quadruple Alliance between Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia defeat the army at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig, Napolean stepped down from power and was exiled to the island of Elba. Louis XVIII stepped up to be the new king the people were scared that he would be like the old kings. Napolean returned to France and was welcomed and supported by many citizens and soldiers. Napoleans overall impact was felt in the fact that the old feudal system had been eliminated from Europe. Limited monarchies emerged because of the ideas of the French Revolution had been spread throughout Europe. Overall Impact of French Revolution and Napoleans reign on Europe