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WW1 Timeline -James
Transcript of WW1 Timeline -James
28th June, 1914
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie Duchess of Hohenberg were shot dead by a Bosnian-Serb during a visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. This assassination was significant because it was enough to set off many other events leading up to the war. But the death of the the Archduke and his wife was the main reason to the beginning of World War 1.
After the assassination of the Archduke and his wife, it led to many discussions. It led Austria-Hungary to demand 10 things of Serbia. This was significant because Austria-Hungary wanted them to reject the demands as an excuse to go to war.
23rd July, 1914
Austria-Hungary presents 10 demands to Serbia
After receiving the 10 demands from Austria-Hungary, they agreed to all but one of the demands. This one demand was the 6th one that read, "To take judicial proceedings against accessories to the plot of the 28th of June who are on Serbian territory; delegates of the Austro-Hungarian Government will take part in the investigation relating thereto". This was significant because when Serbia rejected the demands it gave Austria-Hungary an excuse to start war with them.
25th July, 1914
Serbia agrees to only 9 of the 10 demands
1st - 3rd August, 1914
Germany declares war on Russia, France and invades Belgium
Germany declares war on Russia and France, following on from the declaration of war from Austria-Hungary to Serbia. Germany also invades Belgium due to the Scheiffen Plan. This is also significant because Germany did not have to declare war on anyone, they could of just help defend Austria-Hungary. It just causes even more chain reactions to start and other countries to get involved in the war.
28th July, 1914
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after the demands are not met. This is very significant as this starts the war and causes all the other countries to declare war because of the allegiances they have with each other.
16st - 31st October, 1914
The first battle of Ypres
The first battle of Ypres was also known as the first battle of Flanders. This battle was fought for the town of Ypres, in Belgium, between the allies of: France, Britain and Belgium against Germany. Both parties wanted to win the land so that they could use it for purposes of their own. In the end the Allies won. Germany lost around 134,000 people and the allies lost 125,000 - 160,000. This event was significant because the allies prevented Germany from taking over more land and expanding their empire.
24th - 25th December, 1914
Christmas Truce on the Western Front
In the week leading up to Christmas, most of the nations soldiers from Germany and Britain began too be merry and sing songs, and even go to the enemy trench and give gifts to them. They talked together, had food together and celebrated together like the war never happened. They also played a soccer match with one another. This was a very significant event in World War 1 as the week leading up to Christmas, there was hardly any killing and they didn't hate each other. There was peace and happiness for a little bit which hadn't been seen since the war started.
25th April, 1915
Allied forces land on Gallipoli, landing at Anzac Cove and Cape Helles and fought Turkey
The Australians and New Zealand soldiers land on Gallipoli after a very long journey . These young soldiers thought they were fighting Germans but Turkey had also entered the war on Germany's side. The battle went on for many months on the Gallipoli Peninsula but the campaign failed as they only gained about 2 miles of land in those 8 months. Around 8,000 Australian and New Zeland soldiers died fighting for our country. Some soldiers lived on and were moved to continue fighting in the Western front while others stayed to fight against the Turks.
7th May, 1915
Sinking of the Lusitania
The Lusitania was a cruise ship which was on a journey to Britain, it carried many passengers and cargo. On the journey and like many other boat journeys, they were shot down by German shipping lines. This was very significant as 128 Americans were and around 1,200 British were killed when it sank. This event invited the United States to join the war and declare war on Germany.
31st May, 1915
First Zeppelin raid on London
A Zeppelin was a massive airship that was manufactured by the Germans in the early 20th century. At first they were used for transporting passengers, but the Germans developed them into bombers and Scout ships. The first attack was when 2 Zeppelin Planes dropped bombs on London. This was significant because it changed the way of warfare and how different countries attacked each other.
21st February - 18th December, 1916
Battle of Verdun
The battle of Verdun was the longest battle in World War 1. This battle was between the French and the Germans on the Western Front. Many different tactics were drawn into this battle to defeat the other nation. France ended up winning the battle. Around 315,000-540,000 Frenchmen were killed compared to the Germans 281,000 - 430,000. It is a significant event because it was the longest battle in World War 1 and also because the French overcame the Germans.
31st May - 1st June, 1916
Battle of Jutland
The battle of Jutland was fought between the navals of the British Empire and the German Empire. Both parties were effected strongly, but it was Germany who got the better of Britain. The Germans won the battle over Britain which was significant because it was the only naval battle in World War 1. Around 8,500 people were killed and over 600 wounded.
1st July - 18 November, 1916
Battle of the Somme
The battle of Somme were a series of attempts to break the stalemate of the trenches. Many allies that were enemies against Germany attempted to do this. All the countries ended up moving Germany back between 8-9 kilometers. This was a positive for all the other countries, but many thousands of deaths we're taken in this event. This was significant because many Germans were killed and land was taken away from them. At the end of the battle around 620,000 Allies and 400,000-500,000 Germans were killed.
6th April, 1917
United States declares war on Germany
United States declares war on Germany because the Germans sunk many ships and vessels that were approaching Britain. The main reason for them entering the war and delcaring war on Germany was because of the Lusitania, which was shot down and killed 128 Americans on it. This is significant because once again the Germans are influencing other countries to get involved into the war.
12th October, 1917
British attack at Passchendaele
The Passchendaele Battle is more commonly known as the third Ypres Battle. It is known to be a muddy battle. The battle was an attempt by the British to break through the Flanders. This was significant becasue 310,000 men were lost from the British and only 260,000 from the Germans.
11th November, 1918
The Armistice is the day when all the nations agreed to stop fighting, but the war is not officially over. It is just temporary until the politicians can agree on another way to end the war. This is significant because there is no more killing and no more blood shed, there is finally some peace around the world.
12th January, 1919
Paris Peace Conference
The war has not officially ended but the fighting has stopped. The Paris Peace Conference was a very long discussion on how they were to officially end the war but mostly to decide the fate of Germany. This was significant because this conference was one of the main reasons the war officially ended.
28th June, 1919
Treaty of Versailles is signed
The treaty of Versailles is signed in 1919 after a series of long discussions which officially end the war. This was obviously a very significant event as it finally ended the bloody and devastating war which resulted in 9.4 million people dead and 12.8 million wounded for the Allies. For the Central Powers 7.1 million dead and 8.4 million wounded. There were also neutral countries where 16.5 million people died and 21.2 million people were wounded.
Late 19th and Early 20th Century
Nationalism, Imperialism and Materialism and alliance system
During the late 19th and early 20th century nationalism played an important role leading up to the war. As if the same language was spoken by people in different countries, it would unite them together and make them stronger. There was also this thing called imperialism. Imperialism is the policy of where any country extends its territory to expand their empire. Every country wants to extend their land for more power which led to tensions between some countries. Also materialism was a factor leading up to the war, as all countries wanted to have the best military weapons. They would compete with each other to either attack or defend themselves from other countries and they may have wanted to experiment with these weapons, which is another reason and factor leading to the war.
4th August, 1914
Britain declares war on Germany
Britain declares war on Germany because they invaded Belgium, which was a neutral country and not willing to be involved in the war. This is significant because Germany was such a strong and powerful nation, if countries like Britain did not step in and stop Germany, they would have occupied and taken over the whole of Europe.