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Music of the world
Transcript of Music of the world
Professor: Antoni Piza
St. Louis Blues
Elements of African Music
Call and Response
Ostinato (repeated rhytmic pattern)
Layered texture (manifests the same melody at different pitch levels which occasionally produces a series of parallel chords).
Vocables (no sensible lyrics, just the sound of words)
Song from Angola
Music of India
Melodic Structure: Raga
Idiophones - bells, rattles, scrapers, xylophones, and log drums
Membranophones - drums shaped like cones, cylinders, kettles, barrels, goblets, and hourglasses
Aerophones - flutes, whistles, horns, and tumpets
Chordophones - musical bow
Date back over 3000 years; among the oldest in the world.
Two distrinct traditions: Karnatak music of south India and Hindustani music of north India.
Spiritual emphasis is reflected in the lyrics of south Indian songs.
Elements of Indian Music
Improvisation - last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours, depending on the occasion and the mood of the performers and audience. (Both vocalists and instrumentalists improvise.)
Based on human voice - pitch range is restricted to less than four octaves.
Microtonal ornaments - these tiny pitch fluctuations (changes) allow the graceful transition from one note to another.
Melodies are usually accompanied by a drone instrument 'Tambura'.
Raga - a pattern of notes, each raga is linked with a particular mood (ritual raga, farming raga...). It serves as a framework of the specific topic song.
Rhythmic Structure: Tala
'Tala consists of a repeated cycle of beats.' The most common cycles have 6 to 16 beats.
Each beat in a tala may be divided into smaller time values.
(Many instruments associate with hindu gods and goddesses.)
Solo male voice calls and the chorus responds: an example of call-and-response pattern.
Several drummers perform different rhythms simultaneously in the background.
Improvisation by Ravi Shankar (famous sitarist and also the father of singer Norah Jones) on the evening raga.
Tala is consisted of ten beats (2-3-2-3).
Accompanied by a tabla with a tambura in the background.
Ravi Shankar (1920 - 2012)
Koto Music of Japan
Koto has thirteen strings. Each string has a movable bridge.
Has a long history as it was imported around A.D. 650 - 750. But it was performed only by Buddhist monks, Confusian scholars and aristocrats.
It began to be widespread among people during the Edo period (1615-1868) as kabuki theaters (masked role plays) had become popular.
Yatsuhashi Kengyo (1614-1685)
Considered as the founder of modern Koto music
Components of koto music
Danmono - composed of
and faster tempo subsequent sections.
Tegotomono - song cycle with extended instrumental interludes (ex. song - instrumental interlude - song)
Most koto music is based on pentatonic scales that correspond to A-B-C-E-F or E-F-A-B-C on the piano.
Usually heterophonic texture (when alternate versions follow different rhythm while performing same basic melody)
"The humor of the coon song, the syncopation of ragtime and the spirit of Negro folk song and called it blues." - W.C. Handy (1873 - 1958)
The song has three parts: a 12-bar blues verse and 12-bar blues chorus juxtaposed with a 16-bar habanera or Spanish-tinged bridge.
W.C. Handy (1873 - 1958)
Known as a father of the blues, he wrote several blues which include St. Louis Blues, Memphis Blues, Aunt Hagar's Blues... etc.
Inspired by a tormented woman whose husband had cheated on her, and published the song himself in 1914, which is the St. Louis Blues.
Composed by various races of people -> Indigenous, European, African, Asian (mainly Japanese)... etc.
Main language is the Portuguese, although some other dialects spoken by the descendants of immigrants remain. (German, Italian, West African...)
Because of the vast Amazon forest and Andes Mountains blocking the Brazil's cultural exchanges with the Latin American Spanish-speaking neighbors , the Brazilian music has more ties to Europe and Africa.
French Calvinist missionary Jean de Lery had lived among the Tupinamba people in 1557 and published a book reporting on the indigenous people's life.
No distinction between performers and audiences
Strong gender role (ex. women are not allowed to play flutes)
Usage of aerophones and idiophones; Jesuits are believed to introduce chordophones while membranophones are uncommon.
Mainly used in spiritual ceremony.
European - devised music
Secular dramatic dance influenced by Catholic celebration (ex. bumba-meu-boi)
Prominent percussion sound (zabumba, pandeiros, pifanos, sanfona, guitar)
Toada: strophic (voice repating) songs with rerains
Forro: dance gatherings influenced by European culture.
Capoeira: fight/dance/game with martial arts movements, African slaves had practiced it while concealing the fighting purpose. It is performed in a 'roda de capoeira'.
Atabaque (drum), Pandeiro, Berimbau (musical bow)
Carnival & Samba
Carnival occurs in various places and formats (rural, urban, organized, informal...).
Samba acts as the background music for carnivals and being learned at 'escolas de samba'. It has various evolved forms like Samba-reggae, Samba-cancao, Samba-enredo...etc.
Practiced mostly by low-income mulatos, African Brazilians and immigrants.
background percussion 300-500 performers
Cosmopolitan popular music
Choro/Chorinho: Rio de Janeiro's first instrumental popular music style
Bossa nova: modified version of Samba-cancao, taste of laid-back, elite life style.
Musica Popular Brasileira: focus on sociopolitical topics. Emerged when the oppression era was dooming the Brazil. It had fired the 1960s Tropicalia movement which opposed the militar dictatorship and objected the racial concerns.
Brazilian Rock, Hip-Hop and Funk
"Rock in Rio" the first Brazilian rock mega-concert in 1985, had helped propel rock music into the mainstream in Brazil.
Youth had found a chance to deviate from the memory of the dictatorship (ended in 1985 coincidentally).
Depend heavily on electronic instrumentation and use more direct language to convey the feeling.
Uses English and Portuguese and sometimes other languages to give musical offbeat.
Because Afro-Brazilians still suffer enormous social and racial discrimination, people often regard that young Afro-Brazilians practice the rock, hip-hop and funk in order to proclaim new Afro-Brazilian identities to the public audience.
Developed by the Portuguese royal family who had fled to Rio de janeiro to avoid the Napoleon's Europe Domination.
Imperial Conservatory and Imperial Academy of National Opera (1857 - 1863)
Form of opera ('Il Guarany')
Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) - created a music that can represent Brazil while also appealing to the international audience.
Camargo Guarnieri (1907-1993) - merged traditional Brazilian music with classical European repertoire.
Hans-Joachim Koellreutter (1915-2005) - advocate of serialism (isorhythm)
African continent is usually subdivided into two areas: north Africa and sub-Saharan Africa.
This section focuses on the sub-Saharan African music, also named black African music. (North African music is more related towards the Middle Eastern music than the South neighbor.)
Maasai dancers in the festival
Nigerian drummers celebrating the arrival of running water to their village.
Music in society
Contemporary African Band
(featured is Gangbe Brass Band)
Music is the part of African's daily life (usually performed at outdoors).
Generations after generations continue to preserve their music culture through oral tradition (no written record).
Diverse rhythms - most of the music features polyrhythms; two or more rhythms would be played simultaneously and produce out-of-phase sound.
Percussive sounds are almost always found in the music; wide variety of instrumental ensembles including human body are being used.
(imitate the rhythms and intonations of speech)
Bamboo flute players of Rwanda
Ghananian 'kora' player
A single large xylophone can be played by several performers.
'Spiderwebs are often placed over small holes in the resonators to create the buzzing sound favored by African musicians.' (printout page 581)
'Talking drums are used to send messages over long distances.' (printout page 582)
Mitamba Yalagala Kumchuzi
(dance song of the Zaramo people in Tanzania)
(Chopi people's xylophone orchestra)
(by Mitsuzaki Kengyo)
It has five sections (Godan) and evokes the sound of cloth beating against a wooden block called a kinuta (ginuta).
One of the earliest pieces conceived as a duet for two koto.
Changes between monophonic, heterophonic, and polyphonic textures, create the counterpoint (independent rhythms and pitches form the interdependent relationship).
Other artists had played St. Louis Blues:
B. B. King
And many others
It is said that the Ethiopians adopted St. Louis Blues as their battle hymn when Ethiopia was invaded by the Italy in the 1930s.
Jelly Roll Morton (1890 - 1941), a musician who first composed the jazz we acknowledge today and wrote the jazz musical notation on the paper, had serious public dispute with W.C. Handy. At issue was who invented the blues. Neither man had relinquished his claim as having been the "Father of the Blues." Although most jazz historians say that no single person had invented the blues by himself, they still would give the edge to Morton.
Handout in the Blackboard
Music samples in the Blackboard
Google search images
Various internet websites
Maraca (a gourd filled with seeds)
Giant urua flute
(Large Hummingbird's chant)
Ritual music of the Kayapo-Xikrin people, a community located by the Catete River, a tributary of the Amazon in the Para State.
Excerpt of the 'nhiok' female naming ritual; the ritual link animals as guardian spirits of humans.
Composed by Sidney Resende and Jose Cardoso.
Toada written for the group Caprichoso; narrates the dream of the bird and of the caboclo.
Traditional harmonic progression of I-VI-IV-V-I repeated several times.
Guitar, electronic instrumentation and studio effects are being used.
Composed by Luiz Gonzaga (1912-1989) who is known as the "king of the baiao".
Narrates the devastation of the 'sertao', pain, and hope of going back.
Baiao: popular dance rhythm in forro gatherings -> melodic line accordion, syncopated first beat zabumba, offbeat triangle.
Instruments: zabumba, triangle (gives offbeats), sanfona, bass, electric guitar, shaker and scraper.
"Rei Zumbi dos Palmares"
Composed by Pedro Moraes Trinidade
Capoeira lyrics singing and praising the achievement of Rei Zumbi in freeing the slaves and building the settlement of Palmares for the freed slaves.
Symbolize the Afro-Brazilians' struggle for freedom.
Surdo - bass drum
Repenique - high-pitched, double-headed drum
Cuica - friction drum
Caixa - snare drum
Tamborim - small single-headed frame drum
Agogo - double bell
Ganza - shaker
Um a Um
(One at a time)
Composed by Escola de Samba Mocidade Independende Padre Miguel.
Syncopations and improvisations of the instruments fill the varied ostinato.
Amor de Verao
Performed by Chitaozinho & Xororo.
Musica Sertaneja: duo singing the strophic songs about romance and country life.
Cantoria: improvised poetry singing -> Cantadores (itinerant peasant singers) improvise lyrics over the strumming of a viola
O canto da cidade
(The song of the city)
Composed by Tote Gira and performed by Daniela Mercury
Axe music (axe is a Yoruba word standing for "good vibrations"or "power") using the electric sounds of Trios Electricos (trucks in which electrical instrumentation is being equiped).
Keyboard, guitar, and bass alongside drumming
"They don't care about us" (1996)
'Olodum' is the one of the best known bloco-Afro groups, for the group's social activity; creating schools in their communities, providing free entertainment to low-income populated area...etc.
In this video,
Olodum has performed side by side with Michael Jackson in Salvador -> projects the group's political stance internationally.
Alfredo da Rocha Viana Filho (1896-1973) left a long list of pieces that have become standards in the repertoire of choro genre.
Ernesto Nazareth (1863-1934) is considered as the pioneer who had defined the choro as we know today.
Composed by Ernesto Nazareth and performed by Jacob do Bandolim.
Solo instruments: Bandolim, cavaquinho, and flute
Syncopated rhythms: piano, clarinet and light percussion
Originally written for piano
Rei Zumbi statue
Aquarela do Brasil (Watercolor of Brazil)
Composed by Ary Barroso (1903-1964) whose composed sambas were mainly interpreted by Carmen Miranda (1909-1955).
Represents Brazil as the Afro-Brazilian (
Samba-cancao: Samba rhythm with slower tempos, longer melodies and romantic lyrics
This song became so popular and has assumed the role of a second national anthem for Brazilians. It was featured in the Walt Disney's movie
Instruments: Guitar, light percussion, clarniet, flute, saxophone and string orchestra.
Joao Gilberto's low tone and intimate singing style had led him to develop the bossa nova.
Guitar chord picking was used to emulate samba percussion.
Joao Gilberto (b. 1931)
A garota de Ipanema
(The girl from Ipanema)
Composed by Antonio Carlos Jobim (1927-1994) who was famous of constructing the melodies
that move easily and smoothly in wide intervals or do not move at all.
Frustrated love story of a poet for a beautiful woman of idyllic Rio de Janeiro.
Jazz improvisations by Stan Getz (saxophone player)
Instruments: Guitar, bass, drums, saxophone, piano
Two musicians, Caetano Veloso (b. 1942) and Gilberto Gil (b. 1942), had played an important role in developing the Musica Popular Brasileira.
They and other tropicalia participants had crafted the provocative lyrics reporting on the social issues as
consumerism, mass media domination, and a general disillusion with the military regime.
Instruments: electric guitar, keyboard, and drum set with brass, strings, and traditional Brazilian percussion.
Os Paralamas do Sucesso
Roots Bloody Roots
Os Racionais MCs
A vida e Desafio
Antonio Carlos Gomes (1836-1896)
Prominent opera composer, he had wrote the opera Il Guarany at 1870. Il Guarany was even acknowledged of its worth in Europe.
Alberto Nepomuceno (1864-1920)
Served as the director of the National Institute of Music in Rio de Janeiro and defended the use of Portuguese in songs at a time when only Italian and French were approved to be used.
No. 1: Introduction
Composed by Heitor Villa-Lobos
Interactions between short, rhythmic ostinatos and long melodic line