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Bibliography: APA Style
Transcript of Bibliography: APA Style
The bibliography contains all the literature cited anywhere in the text of the paper and all the references used by te researcher/author in conducting the investigation anf preparing the paper.
APA Style® originated in 1929, when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.
As with other editorial styles, APA Style consists of rules or guidelines that a publisher observes to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2".
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized.
If there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the rest.
Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the name of the author. Place a period after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social
development. Current Directions in Psychological
Science, 11, 7-10.
Bibliography: APA Style
to write bibliography?
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management
across affective states: The hedonic contingency
hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.
Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A.,
Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to
self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The
importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 65,
Importance of Bibliography
It gives the reader the information he needs should he wish o conduct a literature search on a related problem or read further these cited literature.
It shows the originality of research work
Bibliography provides specific information about each source the researchers have used
is Bibliography important?