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Transcript of Cultures
Christianity Key Terms: Islam
Social Mobility Culture refers to a people’s way of life- including how they meet their needs, and their language, music, art, religion, beliefs, customs, institutions, and technology. What is culture? Language & customs
Urban or Rural setting
Family structures & gender roles
Treatment of Ethnic groups We will discuss: Culture includes customs- which are things that people usually do such as:
How they dress
The foods they eat
How they celebrate holidays
And great turning points in life – birth coming of age, marriage parenthood, and death. CUSTOMS: Roles: Culture also includes roles. Roles are based on rules for the proper behavior of individuals in particular positions and situations. Once a role in a society is learned, people know how they are supposed to act. INSTITUTIONS Culture also includes institutions - organizations developed by each society to make social roles clear and to take care of social needs. Families - arrange for reproduction, the care of family members, and the upbringing of the young.
Schools - teach the young the values of society and prepare them for the responsibilities of adulthood.
Governments - protect us from outsiders, promote social cooperation, and regulate individual behavior. Culture can affect how people perceive or judge those from other cultures
It can be difficult for some cultures to understand other cultures. Sometimes differing cultural perceptions can even lead to misunderstandings.
Example: Today's differences between the U.S. and North Korea. Cultural Perceptions: Rural Or Urban Setting • Rural - the countryside. People usually have small homes.
People there often work as farmers and communicate only with those around them.
• Urban - the cities with advanced technology, roads and buildings.
People enjoy hot and cold water, sewage systems, electricity, telephones, and internet. Social Structure In every society some members are better off than others.
• Upper class – wealthy, large land owners
• Middle class - educated and successful people, professionals (anyone who got a degree)
• Working class – manual workers who work in factories, transportation, craftsmen
• Peasants – small farms workers, little education, limited experience of the outside world
• Lower class – uneducated and unskilled, take the least desirable and worst paying jobs India's Caste System In some societies, moving up the social classes is not possible. For example in India, one's caste is inherited.
Social mobility refers to how easy it is to change ones social class, a worker might save money and eventually start a business. Multicultural Societies Ethnic group - refers to a group of people with a common ancestry and a common culture.
Homogeneous societies - like Saudi Arabia and Japan, mostly all people in these societies belong to same language and traditions.
Multicultural or Heterogeneous societies - a mix of peoples and cultures. Ethnic groups are mixed like the U.S. and Brazil Problems faced by Minorities Ethnic Prejudice - dominant groups might treat minority group members as inferior.
Discrimination and Exclusion
Expulsion and Genocide - in some extreme cases some groups might face expulsion or termination. Geo. Journal #4 Now that we have learned about the aspects of culture...
In your poster, write about customs, roles, traditions, languages and other characteristics that make your culture yours. Cultural Regions Key Terms:
Oceania • A region is an area that has common characteristics that distinguish it from neighboring areas.
• A cultural region is defined by the common characteristics of the people living there.
• People in a cultural region may speak the same language, practice the same religion, share the same customs, or live under the same government. Cultural Regions • Often cultural regions correspond to physical regions.
o The Middle East can be viewed as a physical region because it has a warm, dry climate with many deserts and mountain areas as well as several river valleys and mild coastal areas.
• The Middle East is also a cultural region; most people there have a common history and heritage. Most people:
o Are Muslims
o Speak Arabic
o At one time were ruled by Ottoman Empire
o These people communicate and trade with each other than with people outside the region. The Middle East:
A Cultural Region • The Middle East Includes: Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Israel, Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Omen and the U.A.E • Canada and the U.S. are also considered a cultural region both countries:
o Speak English
o Were once controlled by British colonies
o Have Christianity as a predominant religion
o Were once homes to many Native American Indians
o Have democratically elected governments
o Citizens follow similar occupations and enjoy similar ways of life North America: A Cultural Region Within the U.S. there are also several distinct cultural regions such as:
New England, Middle Atlantic States, the Midwest, The South, Texas, Southwest, and the Far West.
o Each of these regions has its own distinct cultural patterns. Even within Texas, there are several regions like the Panhandle Plains, Prairies and Lakes, Piney Woods, Big Bend Country, Hill Country, South Texas Plains, and the Gulf Coast. Regions of TEXAS • Latin America refers to all Americans south of the U.S. This cultural region consists of:
o Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South American.
o The region is called “Latin America” because all those areas were once colonized by Spain and Portugal which are languages derived from Latin.
• Most Latin Americans:
o Are of mixed native American Indian and European descent
o Speak Spanish or Portuguese
o Follow Catholic Religion
• The Panama Canal is an important human-made feature in this region. The 48 mile canal through panama joins the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and serves as a major route for international trade. Latin American: A Cultural Region • Greeks were the first Europeans to develop their own civilizations; their culture would become the standard from which later peoples would measure themselves.
• Much of Europe was also once united by the Roman Empire. Although the fall of the empire led to the rise of many kingdoms, Europeans remain united by the Christian religion.
• Late 1400s Europeans became leaders in technology and culture during the Renaissance and later during the French and Industrial revolutions.
• European nations colonized vast regions and spread their technology and aspects of life. Europe: A Cultural Region • This area consists of Northern Europe eastward into Asia.
• Russians practice Eastern Orthodox Christianity which was adopted from Constantinople.
• Tsar – name given to a Russian ruler who has absolute power.
• 18th Century Russia’s tsars began adopting Western European ways, conquering neighboring territories, all while the vast peasant population continued to live in great poverty. Russia & the Commonwealth of Independent States • During WWI the Tsar’s government under Nicolas II collapsed, and Russia became the world’s first Communist country known as the Soviet Union.
• The Soviet Union along with other nearby Communist states developed their own distinct culture based on:
- State ownership
- Communist ideals
- Totalitarian • 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed into Russia and several smaller states that still kept a loose association known as
- The Commonwealth of
Independent states • Is the area south of the Sahara Desert
• This cultural region is also connected as a physical region with warm climates
• Many people in this area were once subject to the slave trade or European colonial rule
• People in this area separated into ethnic tribes, each with its own language and culture
• Islam, Christianity and Animism are some of the most popular religions in the region Sub- Saharan Africa • Includes major countries such as China, Japan
• China's physical geography including mountains, deserts, and seas helped isolate China from the rest of the world.
-When china was under threat Emperors went great lengths to protect the region going as far as creating a wall to fortify its northern borders.
- Great Wall – symbolic symbol of China’s defense
• Over 65% of people in China live in rural areas near the coast line, working and living off the land as well as relying on fishing
• People who live in the urban areas (cities) are often too crowded East Asia • The Himalaya mountains are the highest mountains in the world and are reason why South Asia is separated from the rest of Asia
• Most people in the region practice the Hindu religion and are subjects of the Caste System
- Islam is another major religion of the area especially practiced in Pakistan
• South Asia is the world’s second most populous region
• People speak languages such as Hindi, English and other local languages South Asia • Is composed of mainly islands that were once known as the East Indies
• Is a cultural region because of all the mix of peoples coming into the region
Chinese, Indians, Arabs, and other European powers
• This region is known for its production of spices such as pepper, cinnamon and nutmeg.
Were once highly prized in Europe and the Middle East because they provided a way of preserving food in a flavorful way other than salt
Spices were a major travel item of the Silk Road
Spices is the reason why European colonial powers wanted to control South East Asia, so that they could exploit the region
• Islam – most popular religion of the region South East Asia •Australia is the only country to occupy an entire continent
•Area is very desert like
•Was once colonized by British settlers
•New Zealand and other smaller island nations such as Tahiti are spread across the South Pacific. Geographers refer to these as Oceania Australia & Oceania