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Mesopotamia

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Cailyn Guthrie

on 11 September 2012

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Transcript of Mesopotamia

By: Cailyn Guthrie and Ryan Burdette Mesopotamia History Over six thousand years ago, early civilizations were developed in Mesopotamia. The ancient Mesopotamians created their own writing system and built empires and monuments. As time passed Mesopotamia's culture, religion, and beliefs changed. So certain views of the ancient civilization changed while some things remained the same. In the past 200 years, artifacts and clues have been found under the sand and soil that suggest that there was once many ziggurats, temples, and treasures in Mesopotamia. Landscape Mesopotamia is a plain between two rivers called the Tigris and the Euphrates. Due to the location of these two rivers unexpected floods often occur. These floods result in good farming conditions for the climate there is hot and dry. Mesopotamia has many regions each with their own landscapes. Northern Mesopotamia is covered with fertile hills and plains. While Southern Mesopotamia was very Marshy and flat. Because the land was so lush in Mesopotamia the animals were able to thrive off the land. Some animals that lived in ancient Mesopotamia were sheep, goats and pigs. People started to domesticate them in 700 B.C. Food Back when the ancient Mesopotamians didn't know what foods were safe to eat they would have food tasters try it. And if they got sick the tested food would be avoided. The Mesopotamians avoided many berries, fungus, and water sources. The two meals a day that the ancient Mesopotamians ate consisted of bread, beer, milk, vegtables, fruits, and fish. hey cailyn
elizabeth wuz heree!!!!! The ancient Mesopotamian's religion included the practice of worshiping many Gods. They built many temples called ziggurats in honor of their gods. A few of their Gods and Goddesses were Aja, the sun Goddess, Ki, Goddess of the Earth, An the God of heaven, and Ishkur the God of storms and rain. The ancient Mesopotamian culture had many traditions such as monthly cerimonies like the Akitu festival which is basically New Years for The Mesopotamians. The Akitu festival is also the earliest festival we have written records for. The Mesopotamians also enjoyed playing music. Common instruments were harps, lyres, drums, reed pipes, and lutes. Ancient Mesopotamia was a society in which men were more powerful than women. Only men were allowed tho go to school or take up their family business while women had to stay home and cook and clean. Religion/Culture Mesopotamian Women Most women from ancient Mesopotamia were trained by their mothers when they were small children to cook, make clothes, and clean. And when the girl turned 14 she would get married and be considered a member of her groom's family. But if her fiance' died before the wedding she would mary his brother or other male relative. Clothing Ancient Mesopotamians made their clothes out of resources like wool and flax. In Summer they would use thinner material. The men would tie cloth around their waist like a skirt and the women would wear a long dress only covering their left arm. In the winter they would use warmer and thicker materials. The men would wear sheepskins with a belt to keep it in place and the women would pin sheepskins on their left shoulder. Hair Styles Mesopotamian hair trends changed quite a bit troughout the years. In the Early Dynastic Period men shaved their heads and the women had long hair which they put in elaborate updos. In the Old Akkadian Period the men started growing long wavy hair and the women started putting their hair up in a tight bun or using nets made out of metal or bone. And around 1000 B.C. the style for men and women was to wear their hair in tight curls. Make-up Even during ancient times , women still wore make-up. They would use a material called antimony and led for eyeliner. And they would use red henna, a plant used for dying hair or skin, as lipstick. Writing System The writing system for ancient Mesopotamia started in Sumer. They developed a way of writing by cutting wedges into clay tablets which represented different things called cuneiform. There were specific symbols that represented phrases and there were symbols that represented different letters of their alphabet. It was originally read up and down but was later changed to left to right. Calendar Language The Sumerian language was spoke in ancient Mesopotamia and was the first language written in cuneiform. The slight disbelief about this is that the first words contained no grammar such as suffixes on nouns and prefixes on verbs, but as soon as these appeared, in about 2600 BC, it is obvious that the language is Sumerian. As a spoken language it died out in about 2000 BC, but continued to be used as a written language, like Latin in Renaissance Europe. There are no languages related to Sumerian, though distant relationships have been found but never been confirmed. The ancestors of the Sumerians are unknown, but it is possible that they came from further east in Asia. In ancient Mesopotamia the year was divided int two seasons, summer and winter. The summer was when they harvested most of their crops like barley and their winter was roughly our winter and fall combined. The Mesopotamian year had six months in it and each month started the new moon first became visible. The names of the months were different in each city. There might have even been more than one name for a month in the same city. Government The longest lasting laws of Mesopotamia were Hammurabi's laws. They said that all laws came from the gods. It also stated that any person who did not believe in the gods or disrespected them was to be punished. Hammurabi's job as the ruler was to defend the helpless and poor. Art Most ancient Mesopotamian art was made to praise the rulers. They created many different types of art like sculptures, paintings, jewelry, and pottery, but you can not find many signatures on their pieces because the main focus was on the ruler. Wildlife Because the land was so lush in in Mesopotamia, animals were able to thrive off the land. some animals that lived in ancient Mesopotamia were sheep, goats, and pigs. People started to domesticate them in 700 B.C. Bibliography www.uchicago.edu
www.wikipedia.org
www.ancientscripts.com
www.edsitement.neh.gov
http.socials-la-wiki.wikispaces
www.williamsound.com
www.mesopotamia.mrdonn.org
www.penn.museum.doc
www.mesopotamia.co.uk
www.learner.org
google images Quiz 1. What language did they speak?
2. What was the name of the laws they had?
3. How many months were in a Mesopotamian year?
4. What was the name of the writing system?
5. What did they use for lipstick?
6. How did they know foods were safe? Answers 1. The language they spoke was Sumerian.
2. The laws they had were called Hammurabi's laws.
3. There were six months in a Mesopotamian year.
4. Cuneiform
5. Red Henna
6.Food tasters
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