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The provincial styles

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Priyanka Shah

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of The provincial styles

The Provincial Styles- Indo Islamic Architecture The eight principle provincial styles which had significant regional manifestation of the Islamic Architecture of India chronologically are as follows:
1) Punjab
2) Bengal
3) Gujarat
4) Jaunpur
5) Malwa
6) Deccan
7) Bijapur and Khandesh
8) Kashmir

Although these styles are chronologically arranged but the periods of these styles overlap each other.
The first one was Punjab provincial style which started in the 1150's and ended in the 1320's whereas the last one to develop was Kashmir provincial style starting in the early 1400's and ending around 1700s. Punjab Provincial Style -The earliest Provincial style to emerge was in the country of Punjab because the first contacts with Islam were made through its two principle cities of Multan and Lahore.
-The main building materials were brick or mud-brick and timber because good building stone was unavailable in this region of river plains.
- The walls of brick or mud brick were usually sloped to provide greater stability and also from compressive strength considerations- specially of mud blocks.
- The wooden elements provided a very artistic facade.
- Parts of the building were decorated with painted plaster and panelling of glazed tiles in brilliant colors.
- Because of the extreme perish ability of materials, there are very few complete examples which have survived. Tomb of Rukn i Alam in Multan Wooden grill Decorative tiling Bengal Provincial Style -Alluvial River delta region so no good building stone available therefore the main building material was brick and terra-cotta.
- Developed from original bamboo and thatch construction.
-Originally the roofs were curved so as to throw up water therefore the new roof forms were also curved even though bamboo was replaced. This led to a curved cornice or curved eaves. Tomb of Fateh Khan Jaunpur Provincial Style -The distinctive features of the Jaunpur Provincial Style are the pylons flanking the great main archway (several storeys high) in front of the main dome and the use of four centered Tudor arches. Atala Masjid Jami Masjid, Jaunpur Lal Darwaza, Jaunpur Gujarat Provincial Style This Provincial style flourished for a period of approximately 250 years from the early 14th century to the late 16th century. It is the largest and most important of all the Indo Islamic provincial styles.
The two main reasons for this-
1) The constant and diligent building ambitions of the muslim
dynasties that ruled it.
2) The intense artistic traditions of the local population.
The first phase was formative and experimental. The best example of that is Jami Masjid at Cambay.
The second phase has increased assurance and directional authority. The best example of this phase is Jami Masjid at Ahmedabad.
The third phase which was most magnificent had the best example in the Jami Masjid at Champaner.
The main among the building types of this style, in addition to Masjids and tombs are Rauzas and step wells.
Rauza was an arrangement in which the tomb and its mosque are complimentary in design and produce an attractive architectural composition. The glory of the ruler would be preserved by the strategy of combining the tomb and the mosque.
The step-wells (wavs) : They were wholly subterranean structures except two kiosks at either end. They generally consist of a well shaft and a long flight of subterranean steps which takes one down right to the water level. Usually at the landing levels of this long flight, the retaining walls on both sides were connected by bridges and stairways (because these connections had to be multi-storeyed) which supported galleries of a highly architectural order.

Apart from the water source, these step wells were also used as resting places and provided a cool retreat for the travelers and also as summer retreats for the royal families specially the women. Jami Masjid, Cambay A A' SECTION A-A' Jami Masjid, Ahmedabad Sarkhej Rauza, Ahmedabad Adalaj ni Vav, Ahmedabad Rani Sipri's mosque, Ahmedabad Sidi Saiyad Jali, Ahmedabad Rani Rupavati's mosque, Ahmedabad
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