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Differentiated Instruction and Assessment for Learning

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najwa zebian

on 12 December 2013

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Transcript of Differentiated Instruction and Assessment for Learning

Differentiated Instruction and Assessment for Learning
Yes? No? Maybe?
Differentiated instruction is needed in every classroom and
should start as early as possible in the primary and junior grades.
Assessment for learning refers to formative assessment only.
Assessment for learning is designed to give teachers information to modify and differentiate teaching and learning activities.
Differentiated instruction and Assessment for learning are related.
Differentiated instruction can be enhanced by assessment for learning.
Assessment for learning can be selectively used at different times during teaching, and does not have to be ongoing.
Assessment for learning relies heavily on giving students feedback.

Our Own KWL
- The
process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there
(Assessment Reform Group, 2002).
- Part of the Learning for All framework. In addition to personalization and professional learning, precision ties both
AFL and evidence-informed instruction
. (Learning for All, 2011).
- “is designed to give teachers information to
modify
and
differentiate
teaching and learning activities.”
- Students learn in
idiosyncratic
ways
- There are
predictable
patterns and pathways that many students follow.
- It requires
careful design
on the part of teachers so that they use the resulting information to determine not only what students know, but also to gain insights into how, when, and whether students apply what they know. Teachers can also use this information to streamline and target instruction and resources, and to provide feedback to students to help them advance their learning.” (Learning for All, 2011).

What We Want to Know...
How can teachers use assessment for learning to differentiate their instruction?

Conclusion
“Accurate and reliable assessment for learning provides the foundation for personalization and precision in instruction” (Learning for All, 2011, p. 27).

If we want to
reach every student
, we must start earlier on in their education journey. This should be present throughout the Junior grades to maintain the development of the required skills. As the Growing Success (2010) document suggests, we need to
adopt an assessment for learning
framework in our classroom where teachers and students work together to reach the learning goals adapted from the curriculum documents.

Instruction and assessment are intricately related, and teachers must plan for instruction with assessment in mind. They must plan with the end in mind and allow students to
actively participate
in setting goals and determining the appropriate success criteria.

Assessment for learning is part of both instruction and assessment, and there are many ways to incorporate it into both in an attempt to differentiate for students’ diverse needs.. This is through the use of
diagnostic
and
formative
assessment
consistently
. This requires careful planning and extensive time and effort spent on
co-constructing
learning goals and success criteria with students, giving them an
active role
in their learning. This way, students can receive an individualized plan for learning that is suited to their own needs. They can also develop learning skills that they can adapt into other subject areas.
Ellen Green, Michelle Henry, Kristin Knight, and Najwa Zebian
What We Know...
- effective instruction that is
responsive
to a student’s readiness, interests, and learning preferences (Ontario Ministry of Education).

- All three characteristics of the
learner-readiness, interests and preferences
- allow educators and students to build new learning through connections to existing knowledge and preferred ways of working.

- The process of differentiating instruction for students depends on the ongoing use of
assessment, assessment for learning, to gather information about where students are in their learning and about their readiness, interests and learning preferences.

- Teachers use this information to vary the learning environment, instruction, and assessment and evaluation.

Differentiated Instruction:
Assessment for Learning:
What We Have Learned...
Article #1: Formative Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning: A Model & Seven Principles of Good Feedback Practice
- This article focuses on and argues for formative assessment (assessment for learning) and
self-regulated
learning in higher education.
- This can be applied to the Junior division because we have already discussed that students can and should start to become self-regulated learners from an early age. Specifically, this article refers to Formative assessment/AFL as “assessment that is specifically intended to generate
feedback

on performance to improve and
accelerate learning”.

- Moreover, it argues that conceptions of assessment have lagged behind conceptions of learning in higher education. “While students have been given more responsibility for learning in recent years, there has been far greater reluctance to give them increased responsibility for assessment processes. Yet, if students are to be prepared for learning throughout life, they must be provided with opportunities to develop the capacity to regulate their own learning as they progress through higher education.”...A point that is extremely applicable to Junior students!
- In order to make sure this happens this article identifies ways in which formative assessment (assessment for learning) can be organized and some key principles of good feedback practice that address a wide spectrum—the cognitive, behavioural and motivational aspects of self-regulation.
Article #2: The Development of an Assessment for Learning Model for Elementary Classroom
Population: 5th grade classroom
Variables:
-
student self-efficacy
- self-regulated learning
- achievement.
The hypotheses were that these three variables would be higher for students who were subject to the AFL model proposed.
Results:
Learning achievement, self-efficacy, and self-regulation were all significantly higher for students who were subject to the AFL model.

When students are able to track their own achievements, and determining the assessment criteria, they are much more involved in the learning process. Students with high self-efficacy are more likely to take on challenging tasks. When students are involved in their own assessment, they are more engaged. When they were given chances to interact with the teacher, they are able to work on their learning strategies to improve their learning.
Article #3: What is assessment for learning?
This article focused on
the evolution of “assessment for learning” in response to the need for differentiation in education.
Furthermore it discussed the criteria needed for assessment to effectively support learning and help students become
autonomous
learners. Finally, it discussed the roles individuals (teachers, peers, and students) play in the assessment and learning process.
Students have different
learning styles
and learn at different rates. It is therefore critical to have an understanding of students’ learning needs so that instruction can be differentiated to accommodate all students. In order to develop
learning profiles
for students, teachers must have evidence of their abilities which can be acquired through effective assessment strategies. Teachers and students must then use this
evidence
to improve future performance.
By incorporating “assessment for learning” in junior grades, students are learning the skills needed to become autonomous learners at an earlier age, ultimately improving their chances for success in the future.
-This article shows a model of self-regulated learning and the feedback principles that support and develop self-regulation in students. It is important to note that “Good feedback practice is broadly defined as anything that might strengthen the students’ capacity to self-regulate their own performance.” Listed below are the seven principles of good feedback practice which facilitate self-regulation.
Good feedback practice:
1) Helps
clarify
what good performance is (goals, criteria, expected standards);
2)
Facilitates
the development of self-assessment (reflection) in learning;
3)
Delivers
high quality information to students about their learning;
4)
Encourages
teacher and peer dialogue around learning;
5)
Encourages
positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem;
6)
Provides
opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance;
7)
Provides
information to teachers that can be used to help shape teaching.
- Teachers can use formative assessment/AFL by incorporating these seven key principles of good feedback to help students be responsible for their own learning.
- By having a role in regulating their own learning students will be able to identify their areas of strength as well as areas they need to improve on.
-This will in turn prepare junior students become successful
life-long learners
through practicing self-regulation and self-monitoring of their learning.

There are two steps to AFL:
1.
Planning stage:
a. Define assessment
objectives
and what students need to achieve
b. Define performance
benchmark
c. Design learning
methodology
and assessment method in accord with leaning objectives
2. Teaching and feedback stage:
a.
Integrate
assessment with learning activities
b.
Feedback
after learning unit
c.
Feedback
result is used to improve student’s performance
This model could be used in our junior classrooms, as it aims to increase individual student achievement by making us teachers the guides to them. The two steps involved, with all of the sub-steps, could be used as a framework for planning and assessment in our classrooms. This article also enforces ideas like the ones we discussed so far in the course, such as assessment being an integral part of the planning for instruction, which goes back to the curriculum expectations and goals.
Learning is unpredictable!

You can use the same sequence of instructional activities for every student, but they will ultimately come to different understandings. It is only through
assessment
that one can determine whether or not this sequence of activities has resulted in the intended learning outcomes.

However, determining whether or not students have achieved the desired learning outcomes is only a part of the process. This information is useless unless it is used to improve future performance.

ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING!
For assessment to support learning, it must meet
two criteria:
1.
The evidence received from assessment must not only provide information about the discrepancy between current and desired performance, but also provide information about the kinds of instructional activities that are needed to help improve performance in the future.
Example: A student fails a math test on fractions. The assessment reveals that the student has difficulty ranking fractions. Why? The student believes that the size of the denominator is the only important factor when ranking fractions. This information provides the teacher with the specific details needed to create activities that will accommodate the student’s needs.


2.
The learner must engage in actions to improve learning.
For example, completing the specific instructional activities designed for them by the teacher, seeking help from peers, and/or reflecting upon their own learning and identifying ways in which they can move forward (guided by meaningful feedback from teachers).





Article #4: Classroom Assessment for Learning
This article focuses on having students
involved
in the process of assessment which I believe is important to begin at the junior level in order for students to be successful students throughout their educational careers. By involving students in Assessment for Learning at the junior level, educators can help learners identify their
strengths and weaknesses
early on. It promotes accountability by giving the students all the tools they need in order to be successful. By starting AFL at the junior level, students are given ample amounts of time to learn how to self-assess their work, that will ultimately create critical thinkers and lifelong learners.
c
lick next!

The Skills of Self-Assessment
The goal with self-assessment is for students to be able to
direct their own learning based on their understanding.
Using AFL, students are able to develop into self-directed learners using their ability to self-assess. A model of formative assessment described by Sadler and Atkin, Black, and Coffey, has students continually asking themselves three questions as they complete their self assessments (3-4):
click next!









All Students Learning Well
The conclusion of this article indicates that by using AFL, educators create a confidence in their students. Students begin to take responsibility for their own learning when they are actively involved in every aspect of it, including assessment. By "[promoting] success, rather than [measuring] it" (4) educators are creating a classroom full of "responsible, engaged, and self-directed learners."
References
Chappuis, S., & Stiggins, R. J. (2002). Classroom assessment for learning.Educational Leadership, 60(1), 40-44.

Chueachot, S., Srisa-ard, B., & Srihamongkol, Y. (2013). The Development of an Assessment for Learning Model for Elementary Classroom. International Education Studies, 6(9), p119.

Differentiated Instruction Educator’s Package. (2009). Retrieved November 20, 2013, from Edugains: http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesDI/D.I.%20Enhancement%20Package/Assessment%20for%20Learning/DI_Assessment_Gde_2009.pdf

Learning for All: A Guide to Effective Assessment and Instruction for All Students, Kindergarten to Grade 12. (2011). Retrieved November 20, 2013, from Ontario Ministry of Education: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/elemsec/speced/learningforall2011.pdf

Learning Goals and Success Criteria. (2010). Retrieved November 23, 2013, from Ministry of Education: http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesAER/VideoLibrary/LearningGoalsSuccessCriteria/LearningGoalsSuccessCriteriaViewingGuide2011.pdf

Ontario Ministry of Education (2010). Growing Success: Assessment, Evaluation and Reporting in Ontario's Schools, First Edition Covering Grades 1 to 12. Retrieved October 17, 2013 from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/success.html

David J. Nicol & Debra Macfarlane-Dick. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31:2, 199-218.

William, Dylan. 2011. What is assessment for learning? Studies in Educational Evaluation 37: 3-14.


Did your answers change?
Take a moment to reflect.

Differentiated instruction is needed in every classroom and
should start as early as possible in the primary and junior grades.
Assessment for learning refers to formative assessment only.
Assessment for learning is designed to give teachers information to modify and differentiate teaching and learning activities.
Differentiated instruction and Assessment for learning are related.
Differentiated instruction can be enhanced by assessment for learning.
Assessment for learning can be selectively used at different times during teaching, and does not have to be ongoing.
Assessment for learning relies heavily on giving students feedback.

How do you plan to use the information from this presentation to enhance your differentiated instruction through Assessment for Learning?
And one video we think you'll enjoy :)
Let us take you through 4 articles synopses about AFL and DI!
Teachers
1.
engineer
effective classroom discussions, activities and tasks that elicit evidence of learning
2.
clarify
learning intentions and share criteria for success
3.
provide
feedback that moves learners forward

Learners
1.
understand
learning intentions and criteria for success
2.
activate
themselves as the owners of their own learning

Peers
1.
understand
and share learning intentions and criteria for success
2.
activate
learners as instructional resources for one another

Classroom Assessment for Learning
Involving students in classroom assessment provides
motivation
for achievement, instead of measurement. Chappuis and Stiggins describe the old general framework of teaching as "teacher teaches and then tests."
(1)The teacher and the class then move on to something new, leaving students who were unsuccessful to finish low and have no opportunity for improvement.
Assessment For Learning (AFL) uses "
day-to-day classroom assessment activities to involve students directly and deeply in their own learning, increasing their confidence and motivation to learn by emphasizing progress and achievement rather than failure and defeat." (1)
Chappuis and Stiggins claim that when students become involved in their assessment, AFL becomes more about teaching than about grades and evaluation.
Student-Involved Assessment
The main question in this section of the article is:
"How can students use assessment to take responsibility for and improve their own learning?"
(2) To ensure that students are actively involved in their assessment, it is important for teachers to provide them with
accurate and descriptive feedback
. In order to provide efficient feedback, teachers must do a number of things (1-2):
-
pretest
and
adjust
lessons for the needs of individuals and/or the group,
- identify
which students need more
practice
,
- redesign
instruction based on results of day-to-day assessments and activities,
- reflect
on the effectiveness of personal teaching practices,
- discuss
strengths and areas in need of improvement with each student, during group/pair work,
- match
students who demonstrate understanding with those who do not.
1. Where am I trying to go?
: This is identified by the teacher's clearly outlined learning targets that are continually clarified as the lessons continue and not just at the beginning.
2. Where am I now?
: Students compare their work to models of high-quality work and try to identify the differences. Teacher feedback is crucial in this stage.
3. How do I close the Gap?
: Assessment for Learning gives students the tools to know how to move towards the final learning goal. There are sub-questions in this category that allow the students to understand how to achieve the goal: "What do I need to change in my work to improve its quality?
4.

What specific help do I need to make these changes?
From whom can I get help? What resources do I need?" (4)
Click
next
to zoom into each section :)
Four Core Practices

• “
Ensure
a common understanding of learning goals and success criteria

Ask
strategically planned questions

Provide
descriptive feedback

Model
and promote peer and self-assessment skills” (Differentiated Instruction Educator’s Package, 2009)
Readiness:
refers to the student’s starting point for learning, relative to the concept being studied.
Interests:

attention to students’ interests enhances the relevancy of learning by linking new information to students’ experience and enthusiasm.
Learning Preferences:

are the many different ways in which the learners prefer to acquire, process, and work with information. Learning preferences are influenced by gender, culture, the classroom environment, learning styles and multiple intelligences.
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