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PSYA2 - Stress - Psy methods of stress mgmt
Transcript of PSYA2 - Stress - Psy methods of stress mgmt
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Stress Inoculation Therapy (SIT)
Stress Inoculation training
(form of CBT)
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
: A combination of cognitive (changing maladaptive thoughts) and behavioural therapy (way of changing behaviour in response to these thoughts)
Stress inoculation training:
Type of CBT which trains people to cope with stressful situations by learning skills to protect against stress
Aim is to increase self-confidence and sense of control
What is CBT?
1: Conceptualisation phase
Therapist and client establish relationship and identify sources of stress in lives.
Encouraged to keep a diary of stressful experiences
Therapist may challenge client’s appraisal of stressful situations if they seem exaggerated.
2: Skills acquisition phase
Coping skills are taught and practised primarily at the clinic, then gradually rehearsed in real life
Skills taught and tailored to clients own problems.
Includes positive thinking, relaxation, social skills, methods of diversion, time management, social support.
3: Application phase (and follow up)
Clients are encouraged to use their coping skills in the real world.
The therapist and client continue to monitor the success (or failure) of the therapy
Clients may even be asked to help train others.
Evaluation (AO2) - SIT
SIT focuses on challenging what the stressors are in life as well as a way of dealing with the problems
Sheehy and Horan (2004) found SIT decreased stress and improved grades for first-year law students.
Can be applied to many individuals and all stressful situations (examination stress, Berger, (2000)
Jay & Elliott (1990) - Videotape for parents of 3-12 year old children with leukemia. Implies SIT to be an effective treatment for acute, short-term stressors
Meichenbaum (2001) SIT modeling films used successfully to control anger with alleged rape victims when preparing them for forensic examination.
SIT takes time, commitment and money!! Therefore not available to everyone!
SIT is too complex; it might be better to just talk more positively and relax more
Another form of CBT
(what is this again?)
Involves three stages:
Client is taught how to recognise the physiological signs of stress, and to identify it’s source. Also, how to acquire skills for coping.
Evaluation (AO2) - Hardiness training
Hardiness training targets both perception and coping, therefore reducing the gap between demands and abilities.
It is effective; currently used by Olympic swimmers (Fletcher, 2005)
Provides the client with ability to cope with a variety of stressful situations they may encounter in the future.
Hardiness training takes time, commitment and money!! Therefore not available to everyone!
Requires the client to be motivated to change personality
Who developed stress inoculation training (SIT)?
What are the three stages of SIT?
Who identified the hardy personality?
What are the three components of hardiness training?
There are three main phases of SIT:
Conceptualisation phase (assessment)
Skills acquisition (rehearsal/stress-reduction)
Application phase (follow through)
Reliving stress encounters:
Client recognizes current ways of coping through analysing
past stressful events
Clients are taught to see stressors as challenges they can take control of, rather than problems they should give in to. Therapist will suggest taking on and coping with small stressors and feel optimistic about doing so.
Cognitive restructuring - Change the way people think about themselves and their lives
Aimed at changing their emotional response and behaviour.
A combination of cognitive (changing maladaptive thoughts) and behavioural therapy (way of changing behaviour in response to these thoughts)
Evaluation (AO2) - Drug Therapy
Kahn et al (1986) followed nearly 250 patients over eight weeks and found that BZ’s were significantly superior to a placebo. A meta-analysis of students focusing on the treatment of social anxiety
Beta-blockers are effective in reducing anxiety in a variety of stressful situations e.g. among musicians and in sports where accuracy is more important than physical stamina ( e.g. snooker and golf)
Increased aggressiveness with BZs
Treating the symptoms rather than the problem
Strength - Ease of use:
One of the great benefits of using drugs for stress is that the therapy requires little effort from the user.
You just have to remember to take the pills. This is much easier than the time and effort needed to use psychological methods.
Real World Application
Lockwood (1989) studied over 2,000 musicians in major US symphony orchestras and found that 27% reported taking BB's. It was found that those musicians who had taken BB's felt better about their performance, as well as receiving a better report from critics.
Identify one topic you have found more difficult (AO1)
On a post it note
YOU ARE GOING TO NEED THIS POST IT NOTE THROUGHOUT THE LESSON!
Mini assessment 1