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Neelam chabria

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of welsh

Welsh-English History and background information.

Development and causes of language decline .

Revival and decline . 18th and 19th century.

Revitalization efforts.

Status of welsh language in 20th century and current status.

Questions on Welsh- English THE HISTORY OF WALES "CYMRAEG".





"And they saw a tall tree by the side of the river, one half of which was in flames from the root to the top, and the other half was green and in full leaf." Such magic is the very stuff of the Mabinogion, unknown outside Wales until the translations of Lady Guest. It is part and parcel of that glorious tradition of Welsh poetry that is so little known outside the borders of Wales itself. The magic is continued in that other great contribution of Wales to the world -- the body of literature as Arthuriana. “MABINOGION” AUTHORS Norman-Welsh writer Geoffrey of Monmouth (c.1090- 1155), that the Arthuriana owes its greatest debt, for his most important work, the "Historia Regum Britanniae", became the basis for a whole new and impressive European literature of Arthurian romance.

 Medieval French writer Chretien de Troyes: popularity in 12th century France where Chretien transformed them into something like the Arthurian legends.

Geoffrey yet another Welsh scholar and cleric
At the end of the 12th century, Giraldus Cambrensis had described the magic of Welsh poetry. FACTORS AFFECTING DECLINE WELSH REVIVAL

 Welsh English can be classified as a vernacular variety of English.

This more ‘conservative’ Welsh-influenced variety of English is the norm in North Wales and can therefore be considered the standard vernacular.

WE has been the subject of parody and jokes, as can be seen in national shows such as Little Britain. Although many people speak with a clear Welsh accent, in North Wales, where the accent is very strong, other (notably younger) people consciously downplay their accent when not in homely settings. WELSH-ENGLISH You may be thinking of the dialect of English spoken in Wales, sometimes jokingly called Wenglish, which has many idiosyncrasies that can be traced to the grammar or vocabulary of the Welsh language.

You may, on the other hand, be fooled by the large number of English words which have been absorbed into the Welsh vocabulary, and by a common tendency to use English words, particularly nouns and verbs, in Welsh speech. The latter is partly a sort of inverted snobbery in those communities where the speaking of Welsh is associated with a good education or high social standing. WHO SPEAKS WELSH TODAY? TV RADIO PRESS




WITH the 2011 Census figures on the Welsh language now published, we can see the proportion of people aged three and over able to speak Welsh decreased in nearly all local authorities in Wales.

The stark fact for Welsh language advocates is that nearly three quarters of the population had no Welsh language skills in 2011. And this is after all the hype about Welsh medium schools and parents sending children to such schools. Welsh with an inferiority complex. Today there are virtually no more monolingual Welsh speakers, whereas the number of monolingual English speakers in Wales increases.

With the media, BBC English has become an omnipresent speech model and can be seen as the prestige norm, associated with correctness and status. Subsequently, “Welsh speakers of non- standard English have been scorned for their inability to speak Welsh as well as for their inability to speak proper English”  The English spoken in Wales is not as deviant with respect to more standard forms of English, especially when it is compared to either Scottish or Irish English. There is little in the syntax which is specifically Welsh so that the main features are phonological with one or two morphological characteristics and a few lexical items such as bach and gel as terms of endearment.
The most general feature of Welsh English is the sing-song / lilting intonation ( associated with the industrial valleys of South Wales ) due to the rise-fall at the end of statements as opposed to the fall in other forms of English.

Long vowels tend to occur only in stressed syllables.
There is little distinction in length among low vowels so that words like grand and grass sound as if they had the same vowel.
· TRAP :
-the most common realization is [ɑ]
-but in mid Wales [æ] or even [ε ] are heard
*sporadically we can record a long [ɑ: ]

-Welsh English lacks the phonemic distinction between / ʌ / and / ə /
-Welsh language has no / ʌ / phoneme but it does have / ə /
-words like STRUT can also have / ʊ / ( in the north-east/ south-west corner ) VOWELS
-the most widespread realization of this words is / ʊ /
-Rare ! in the north this sound is recorded / /
-as an instance of hypercorrection we find / ʌ /

-in RP is /ɒθkl/
-the main realization is [ɔ] in words like cloth
-we can also see long [ɔ: ] in some other parts of wales
-It has 2 realizations which are both widespread
- [æ: ] there is no explanation for this realization
- It´s main competitor [ ə: ]

- in RP /fli:s /
-main realization [ i: ]
- also [ iə] in the strongly Welsh-speaking regions ( mid-wales ) ·PALM :
-these type of words are subject to the same competition, between short [ɑ ] and long [ ɑ:]
-this occurs with words like bath and trap ( to some extend .. )

-there is a sporadic rhoticity ( r-colouring ) in both groups of words ( in certain parts of Wales such as Pembrokeshire etc .. )
-strong tendency in Ears to have an initial /j/ followed by [æ: ] or [ ə: ] ( as in NURSE )

·TUESDAY : RP / ju: /
-In welsh English pronounced like this / iu/ , one of the main reasons: the influence of the welsh language.
·Unstressed vowels :

-Vowels in final unstressed syllables such as in sofa, butter... are lengthened , with a fuller quality than normally ascribed to schwa.
Again, this is another instance of the influence of the Welsh language.

-South wales  [æ: ]
North wales  `` throatiness ´´  pharyngalization
-Strong aspiration of / p, t , k /
-Specially in word-initial position and word-final position

-Occasional use of /t/ in final position: cold, second …
-Tendency to use [s] instead of RP /z/ in medial and final position : thousand and cheese
Reason of the substitution: no /z/ in welsh language
-The use of /v/ when in RP we have an initial /f/ : first, four, furrow …
-Rare and occasionally : / ð / for / θ / -south and midlands [ l ]
- north [ dark l ]
-dropping of the initial /w/ in traditional welsh English : woman, wool …
-welsh language r has Little impact on Welsh English  rolled /r /
Ortographic r : always pronounced in the Welsh language, practice carried into Welsh English
-/p, t, b, d, k, g, v, θ, s, ʃ, tʃ, m, n, ŋ, l / lengthened in pronunciation in Welsh English. Morphology
Syntax -Isn't it as a confirmatory interrogative tag.

-Pronunciation: [ɪnɪI] or [InIɪ]
-Origin: transfer of the Welsh generalized confirmatory interrogative ydy fe? (“isn't it?”)

-Fairly widespread throughout Wales, except: Monmouthshire, Penhallurick.

・we saw some the other day, isn't it
·they had them in the hair, isn't it
·I have heard the word, isn't it Standard English 'how + adjective' as an introductory adverbial phrase in exclamations > Welsh

English: 'there's + adjective'.

-Origin: corresponding formation in the Welsh language: dyna 'there is' + adjective.

・There's funny questions
·There's twp ('stupid') I've been
-Traditional Welsh-speaking regions: several examples of on in the phrase the name/the term on.

-Origin: connection with the Welsh syntagm yr enw ar, 'the name on'.

·I don't know the English term on that.
·There's a special name on that.
·There's a word on that

-Indirect questions retain the inversion of subject and verb characteristic of direct questions.

-Sometimes, the conjunction (such as if or whether) is omitted: Celtic influence.

-Origin: Welsh-influenced construction.

・I don't know what time is it.
·I don't know what is that.
·I'm not sure is it Caerleon or not. -West and South West of England.

-Illustrate historical English English influence.

List of pronouns:

Thee- subjective and objective 2nd person singular personal pronoun:
Older generations at Bishop,
Middleton and Llantwit.

Thou- subjective 2nd person singular persona pronoun. Bishopston, Middleton.

a- subjective 3rd person singular masculine personal pronoun, unstressed: pronounced as a schwa.
Used as he in unemphatic positions at Bishopston and Middleton
'en/un/n- objective 3rd person singular masculine and neuter personal pronoun, unstressed. Un is the
reduced form of OE hine ('him')

thy- 2nd person singular possesive adjective: older-generation speakers

thine- 2nd person singular possessive pronoun: older-generation speakers

Both survive amongst older generations. Confined to equals and familiars.
yourn- 2nd person singular possessive pronoun

ourn- 1st person plural possessive pronoun

theirn- 3rd person plural possessive pronoun -Many instances of non-standard forms of be, do and have.
·He do/he doth
·He have/ he hath

-Also examples of non-standard forms of other verbs. General connection with English English.
Examples of Gower English:
・I be, art thee, yee binna 'you be not'
・Thee casn't 'you can't'
・Thee cust 'you could'
・It doth

·We makth

·I'th 'I hath', ye'th 'you hath', we hath.
Nevertheless, these south-west-English-English-derived verb forms were obsolescent by the 1960s

- Pembrokeshire, Gower: purposive for to instead of 'in order to”, as in I went to town for to see the

-It is one of the more familiar distinctive features of sentence structure in Welsh English

-The fronted constituent is accompanied by emphatic stress.

・A weed it is.
·Coal they're getting out mostly.
·A horse, 't was.

Competition between:

a) Standard English: periphrastic 'do' verb phrases.

b) Non-standard constructions caused by Welsh-language influence, non-standard constructions caused by dialectal English English influence: Periphrastic progressive 'be' verb phrases.
-He goes to the cinema every week – Inflected present (standard)

-He do go to the cinema every week – Uninflected do (unstressed) + uninflected main verb

-He's going to the cinema every week – inflected be (unstressed) + inflected main verb (-ing form) A) Periphrastic 'do' verb phrases

-Unstressed and uninflected auxiliary do + base form of a main verb.

-Corresponding past tense structure. Did + base form of main verb

-Result of the influence from and contact with the dialects of the west and south-west of England.

-Characteristic of dialects with a long historical connection with English dialects of the West

-Encompasses all of the south-western corner of England. Celtic contact.

-Use of auxiliary gwneud “do” in Welsh might have reinforced the use of periphrastic do in Welsh
English. B) Progressive 'be' verb phrases

-Can be found in present-day British Standard English

-The “nonstandardness” of this construction in Welsh English arises because they can be used to express different meanings because of the Welsh-language influence.

-Characteristic of speech of those who have a dominant Welsh-language influence.

-Direct correlation of be forms with a present habitual construction in the Welsh language.
-North Wales

-Classification of be items, in addition to the present habitual and past habitual:

I)-ing form of northern Welsh English, corresponding to a Standard English base form: to
cut the mouth... to make it bleeding.
II) Reference to future time: if they don't receive the first time she's (h)avin' another chance
III)State present: those that are keeping wild birds
IV)Present perfective: I have been using it myself
V)State past: thirty years ago Lord Harlech was rearing them. Table of Contents Historical Context -History of Wales and Welsh
-Spread of English
-Wenglish Phonetics and Phonology -Vowels
-Consonants Morphology and Syntax -Welsh language influence
-Non-standard English English influence Neelam Narain Chabria
Eva Navarrete Villanueva
Jessica Carmona Cejudo Hª del Inglés Contemporáneo,
Curso 2012-2013 - Industrial Revolution: Migration patterns from rural to urban areas

-Inward migration of English Speakers to rural areas

-Increased availability of English-language media
-The party of Wales 'Plaid Cymru' founded 1925: Non-violent civil disobedience

-Other groups vandalized shops and signs in Welsh

-The Welsh Language Act 1967, 1993

-The Welsh Language Board

-National Assembly for Wales Welsh Language Act Welsh Language board -Places duty on public sector to treat
Welsh and English equally when
providing services to the public in

-Grants absolute right to speak Welsh
in Court

-Establishes the Welsh Language Board -Mission: revitalizing the Welsh
language until Wales is truly bilingual

-Funded mostly by the National
Assembly for Wales

-Implements the Welsh Language Act

-Promotes usage of the language at
home, work, play and laisure

-Facilitates usage of the language 1801: Over 80% of Welsh spoke
1901: 50%
1931: 37%
1951: 29%
1971: 21%
1991: 19%

AS A SECOND LANGUAGE? Current Situation -Today, over 23% of the Welsh
population speaks Welsh (most

-Of all current Welsh speakers, over
50% are under the age of 30

-Trend of increase in speakers

-Public support PHONETICS & PHONOLOGY Features of Wenglish Phonology CONSONANTS Welsh language influence in Welsh English Grammar Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Indirect question order Non-standard English English influence in Welsh English grammar Pronouns Verbs Predicate fronting Periphrastic verb phrases and periphrastic progressive verb phrases. Bibliography -Kortmann et al, "A Handbook of Varieties of English : Phonology; Morphology, Syntax"
-Peter Trudgill and Jean Hannah, "International English : a guide to varieties of standard English"
-Welsh Language Board website http://ifla.unistuttgart.de/institut/mitarbeiter/jilka/teaching/dialectology/d7_North_Wales.pdf-http://britannia.com/wales/whist14.htmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/culture/sites/aboutwales/pages/history.shtml ENGLISH WORDS TAKEN FROM WELSH ·Penguin - from pen and gwyn
·Cwtch - to cuddle
·Merchet - the Welsh word for daughter, merch, became an English term for a dowry
·Cariad - commonly used by English speakers in Wales for sweetheart
Source: OED Online
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