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Transcript of Harlem Renaissance
African American culture, particularly in the creative arts, and the most influential movement in African American literary history. Embracing literary, musical, theatrical, and visual arts, participants sought to reconceptualize “the Negro” apart from the white stereotypes that had influenced black peoples’ relationship to their heritage and to each other.
The Harlem Renaissance was a phase of a larger New Negro movement that had emerged in the early 20th century and in some ways ushered in the civil rights movement of the late 1940s and early 1950s.
The powerful economic might of America in the 1920's was overlooked by exciting topics such as the prohibition of alcohol, gangsters, the Jazz age, and the Klu Klux Klan.
Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance
"Critically, the most abused poet in America was the late Langston Hughes. Serious white critics ignored him, less serious ones compared his poetry to Cassius Clay doggerel, and most black critics only grudgingly admired him. Some, like James Baldwin, were downright malicious about his poetic achievement."
-Lindsay Patterson, NY Times
Fadhil, Eldric, Dhanika and Farah
"African American Art: Harlem Renaissance." ArtLex Art Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.
"Harlem Renaissance (American literature and art)." Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.
"The Harlem Renaissance and American Music." All About Jazz. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.
Harlem Project Langston Hughes. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.albany.edu/history/HIS530/HarlemProject/Hughes.html
Langston Hughes -- The Most Abused Poet in America? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/books/01/04/22/specials/hughes-abused.html
Langston Hughes: Harlem Renaissance. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.shmoop.com/langston-hughes/harlem-renaissance.html
Langston Hughes. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/hughes/aa_hughes_subj.html
"Nigeratti Writers": Niger + Literati
(August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet, and social critic.
fictionalize fundamental personal questions and dilemmas amid complex social and psychological pressures
explored integration of not only blacks, but also of gay men, and obstacles such as the individuals' quests for acceptance.
(May 30, 1903 – January 9, 1946) was an African American poet
Cullen considered poetry raceless, although his poem "The Black Christ" took a racial theme, lynching of a black youth for a crime he did not commit.
Countee Cullen was very secretive about his life.
New Negro Intellectuals: the self-reliant, intellectual man eager to prove to society the new capabilities of the Black people.
Cyril Valentine Briggs
(May 28, 1888, Nevis – October 18, 1966, Los Angeles, California) was an African-Caribbean and African-American writer and communist political activist born in the West Indies
Briggs became a leading exponent of racial separatism. Briggs saw American White-Black racism as a form of “hatred of the unlike” that draws “its virulence from the firm conviction in the white man’s mind of the inequality of races—the belief that there are superior and inferior races and that the former are marked with a white skin and the latter with dark skin and that only the former are capable and virtuous and therefore alone fit to vote, rule and inherit the earth.”
New Negro Movement
Named after Alain Locke's anthology in 1925, it sparked in the Upper Manhattan district of Harlem, but spreads to African and Carribean colonies who lived in Paris as well.
Black communities continues its advancements in literature and the arts during this period of time, in which was referred to the "flowering of Negro Literature" by Weldon Johnson.
Fashion in the 1920's
William Grant Still
Still is one of the most promiment African-American composer during the Renaissance period. He wrote more than 150 compositions in his lifetime.
This was the decade where in women started to wear more comfortable clothes (short skirts or trousers)
Fashion in the 1920's
Men also abandoned the highly formal attires and began to wear athletic clothing for the first time.
Klu Klux Klan
Malvin Gray Johnson
He is an African-American painter, born and raised in Greensboro, North Carolina. His family moved to New York, where he studied art at the National Academy of Design. He rose to prominence during the Harlem Renaissance. He was "the youngest member of the Harlem Renaissance artists...migrated to New York with his family at an early age...where he was influenced by French Impressionism and Cubism."
Zora Neale Hurston
Lewis Grandison Alexander
Sterling A. Brown
Joyce Sims Carrington
Ethel M. Caution
Anita Scott Coleman
Joseph Seamon Cotter, Jr.
Mae V. Cowdery
Countee Cullen – The Black Christ and Other Poems (1929)
Raymond Garfield Dandridge - The Poet and Other Poems (1920), Zalka Peetruza and Other Poems (1928)
Clarissa Scott Delany
Blanche Taylor Dickinson
Ruth G. Dixon
Jessie Redmon Fauset
Angelina Weld Grimke
Gladys May Casely Hayford
Virginia A. Houston
Georgia Douglas Johnson
James Weldon Johnson – God's Trombones
Rosalie M. Jonas
Elma Ehrlich Levinger
Effie Lee Newsome
Richard Bruce Nugent
Margaret L. Thomas
Eloise Bibb Thompson
Eda Lou Walton
Lucy Ariel Williams
Octavia Beatrice Wynbush
Kathleen Tankersley Young
Symphony No 1: "Afro-American"
A white supremist and anti communist organization which is against other races. Especially African Americans
Jazz is a type of African-American music that originated in the 1920's in the Southern United States as a combination of European harmony and forms with African musical elements. A unique and enjoyful music genre that spread all over the world.
Walter Francis White
(July 1, 1893 – March 21, 1955) was an American civil rights activist who led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
White oversaw the plans and organizational structure of the fight against public segregation.
Briggs’s Marxist views as applied to a separatist government caused a rift with Marcus Garvey
Alain LeRoy Locke
September 13, 1885 – June 9, 1954) was an American writer, philosopher, educator, and patron of the arts. Locke promoted African-American artists, writers, and musicians, encouraging them to look to Africa as an inspiration for their works.
17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940 was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator
was a loyal advocate of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which
Founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL).
Hughes's creative genius was influenced by his life in New York City's Harlem, a primarily African American neighborhood and also his grandmother. He was first inspired directly by the streets of Harlem when he took a walk and saw street artists performing blues and Jazz Songs; he then started writing. He loved the street and all its characters, and celebrated them in his work. "The low-down folks, the so-called common element, and they are the majority—may the Lord be praised!"
By the time his second poetry collection, Fine Clothes to the Jew was published, black critics were upset by Hughes's work. They felt that, by writing poems about the common man, Hughes was highlighting negative aspects of black life—the urban slums, the nightclubs, the streets. Hughes essentially responded that he couldn't care less. He had already given his critics their answer. As he wrote in "The Negro Artist"
Hughes was discovered November 1924 in Washington, D.C. He was not born in Harlem nor is he a native New Yorker. He became drawn to New York and Harlem in the early 1920’s because of the cultural movement blossoming there, the Harlem Renaissance.
His literary works helped shape American literature and politics. Hughes, like others active in the Harlem Renaissance, had a strong sense of racial pride. Through his poetry, novels, plays, essays, and children's books, he promoted equality, condemned racism and injustice, and celebrated African American culture, humor, and spirituality.
Before it was a catchphrase, Hughes knew that black was beautiful. In "Harlem Sweeties" he celebrated the tones of black skin. After centuries of poets who described darkness as insidious and foreboding, Hughes recast it as beautiful in "Dream Variations" a strong indication of the times of the Harlem Renaissance.