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Composting

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by

Scott Burke

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of Composting

City of Cedar Falls
Cart system
$10 to get cart emptied
Taken to landfill
Free pickup
Use for gardening
548 tons per year in Cedar Falls
Landfill Fees: $10 minimum fee
Composting:


Piazza
:
31, 256 lbs
Fresh Beginnings:
15,357 lbs
Maucker Union, Prexy’s:
3,487 lbs


University of Northern Iowa: Composting
Community-Wide Composting
40% Diversion rate
Average Household- 7lbs per week
230 Main season subscribers
Over $33,000 is saved to the city!
Yard Debris: 1,196 tons per year
Food Debris: 75 tons per year

Refuse: 10,615 tons (30% could be composted)
= 3,184 tons more could be composted per year!

Customer Satisfication
Operating cost very low
Dubuque Continued
What can be composted?
Landfill Effects
Methane is generated in landfills as waste decomposes and in the treatment of wastewater.

Landfills are the third largest source of CH4 emissions in the United States.

Dubuque Process
Started in 2006
Uses a green cart system
Transferred to 13 gallon cart
40lb weight limit
Businesses use 48 gall and 64 gall
60 cents/month 5.50/month
Taken to landfill and Farley
Schools and Colleges participating
34,000 pounds since 2010!
Commerical customers
22,000 lbs since 2010!



This allows worms and other beneficial organisms to aerate the compost and be transported to your garden beds.
Start your pile on bare earth
Add compost materials in layers



Moist ingredients include: food scraps, tea bags, seaweed, etc.


Dry materials include: leaves, sawdust pellets and wood ashes.
Alternating moist and dry.
Add manure


A good start would be to use leaves and grass clippings. This activates the compost pile and speeds the process along.
Nitrogen sources
(
green
manure)
Organic waste sent to landfills emits CH4.
Keep your compost moist
If weather permits, allow rain to moisten your compost
Otherwise, water occasionally
Helps preserve moisture and heat
Keep your
compost covered
Prevents compost from being over-watered
Over-watering can leave compost soaked and saturated
Turning your compost
Aeration
is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance.
Baked goods
and dough, bread, toast, butter and margarine, cake, cookies and candy, cereal and oatmeal, cheese and dairy products,
coffee filters and grounds
, corncobs and husks, eggs and
eggshells
, fish and fish parts, shellfish,
fruits and vegetables
, flour, grains and rice, gravy and sauces, grease, lards and fats, peanut butter,
plate scrapings
, popcorn, salads and salad dressing, sour cream and yogurt, sugar and syrup, tea bags


Turning the compost pile on occasion
allows for aeration throughout the pile
Where UNI's compost goes
UNI Grounds:
fertilizer
soil supplement at multiple locations across campus



Waste consists of:
fruit
vegetable peels
skins
buds from oranges
pineapples
watermelon
corn
a varied assortment of other produce byproducts

Home Composting
Professor Enshayan's Family:
1 Month = 10,118 grams
Our 5 people:
1 Month = 15,960 grams
What can be done?
Zero Waste Events
Increase number of landfills with compost (Only 4 of 45 municipals landfills have a compost site)
Compost program for all restaurants
Increase subscribers
Advertise
Achieve 50% diversion goal
Reduce methane emissions

A family yearly:
348 lbs
Cedar Falls:
Population: 40,000
548 tons per year
On average 3,000 households compost
%7.5 percent of the city
Food Residuals Land filled
Dubuque: 18.4% Iowa: 11.2%
Compostable Paper Land filled
Dubuque: 11% Iowa: 7.9%


Iowa ranked 36th in Methane Emissions by emitting 984,512 Tons of Methane in 2005.

The average for all states was 2,168,731 Tons of Methane emissions


Average for a family:
1 Month = 13,040 grams
29 lbs
Landfill Effects
Subsurface Migration
What are
we doing?
EPA regulations

Recovery and combustion of gases
Flares, gas turbines

Generating electricity with wasted methane
How to start your own
compost at home:

in a few simple steps...
(not limited to...)
What is composting?
Why should you compost?
(methane)
Odors of landfills
can cause nausea
and headaches
Air pollutants

Methane (23 times more effective in trapping heat)

Carbon Dioxide



Reduced vegetation growth
Enters soil and runs into buildings

Can cause fire

Ammonia gas can cause
health problems
Rialto:
750 lbs/week of fruit and vegetable waste each every week
Comes to 24,000 lbs/year
So far this year...
Operating Cost
Process of mixing organic material with soil to help plants grow
Utilizes the nutritional benefits of your food scraps and yard waste
30%

Save Money:
Compost is free! No chemical fertilizers
Retains soil moisture and less run off
Save Resources:
Keeps valuable resources out of landfills
Used as an erosion prevention (embankments, playing fields, golf courses)
Question:
What can we do as individuals to save money, save resources, improve our soil and reduce our impact on the environment?
start your OWN compost!
Pros & Cons
Pros:
UNI uses an “in-house” approach
Waste straight from dining centers are used as fertilizer for Panther Plot


Cons
:
All compost is pre-consumed waste
None of the post-waste (leftovers)
More Work
Expensive
Panther Plot
Reduce your Impact:
Avoid methane production
Avoid CO2 Emissions for transportation of "waste"
A Closed Ecological System
Full transcript