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A Path to Consonance: Carolingians, Tonaries, & Modes
Transcript of A Path to Consonance: Carolingians, Tonaries, & Modes
Pope Adrian I asks Charlemagne to help expel Lombards (772)
From Isidore (fl. 600) to 800s:
No written theorizing about chants
800 CE: Leo III crowns Charlemagne
Union of Frankish empire with Church expected
to bring Earthly and Spiritual realms into
Pope Gregory the Great
"A little bird told me"
Why attribute liturgical plainchant to Gregory I?
1. He was the first "monk-Pope."
Unification of mind and spirit in the empire.
Dissimilar things brought together
into harmonious unity.
for teachers in
Instituted by Alcuin of York, Master of the Palace School.
Frankish boys’ education (“elementary”) ca. 800
- Written characters (writing)
Liberal arts of Antiquity ("advanced")
[communicated by writers such as Boethius, Cassiodorus, and Martianus Capella]
Dissonance: when individual elements do not mix, they remain in their integrity.
[Concept from Boethius]
Hellenistic and Latin theory (mainly Boethius)
Byzantine 8-mode system (octoechos)
are grouped with
psalm verse endings
so that they connect "euphoniously."
Eventually, modes classified by three things:
ambitus (octave range),
reciting (psalm) tone
It's easy to learn hundreds (even thousands) of chants.
But try ordering their consistent use in the liturgical Office!
Derived, subordinate, smaller range, "pupil" of authentic
Cadence formula =
E U O U A E
(The leader of the Carolingian Renaissance was
Alcuin of York
. Where's York?)
(given by their beginnings -
2. He converted the English!
The psalm is usually not "sung" so much as "intoned" (sort of like Koran recitation and Torah cantillation).
In other words, it is syllabic, formulaic, and focuses on a single note, called the
Remember (NAWM 3 and 4) that
chants for the daily Office and portions of Mass are preceded and followed by refrains called
Before moving on, let's remind ourselves about