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The Persian Empire

By Katherine Franzen, Dani Platt, Jordon Paige, and Ashley Vonlehe (Hour 3)
by

Katherine D

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of The Persian Empire

The Persian Empire (600-330 BCE) How has religion affected the Persians? Where was the Persian Empire located and why was it located there? What were the advancements and influences that the Persian Empire had on the world throughout history? What were the major conflicts that occurred during the existence of the Persian Empire? Who were the rulers that made their mark on the Persian Empire? Why did the Persian Empire prosper and what if any was its downfall? Persia was Originally located in in what is today modern Iran. Why was it

located

here? Cyrus, a Persian, was able to conquer the Iranian Median Empire. He revolted against his Grandfather and established the first When the Persian Empire began, its peoples were polytheistic.

This changed in 600 BC, when the Persians developed Zoroastrianism. CYRUS Known for his mercy
Worked with local economies instead of destroying them
Conquered Babylon Cyrus's son
Conquered Egypt
Killed his brother
Died while traveling back home- could have been suicide or an accident CAMBYSES DARIUS Best known for unsuccessful attack on Greece
May not be related to Cyrus or Cambyses
Was killed by his own general Xerxes Empire stabilized
System of government
Roads for communication
Added NW India to empire Zoroastrianism: Led a war against Athens, which he lost
Was assassinated with his father Darius One of the world's earliest religions, developed in Persia around 600 BC
Based on belief in one all-knowing god called Ahura Mazda
Prophet Zoroaster spoke for their god
Based on ethics: "'Good Words, Good Thoughts, Good Deeds'" (Brief). Artaxerxes I Took over after Darius I died
Son of Xerxes
Reign lasted between 465 BCE to 424 BCE Had the longest reign
Stopped a revolt against his brother, Darius II.
Assassinated along with his son, Antaxeres VI Works Cited
"Alexander the Great." Alexander the Great. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2012. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Alexander.html>.
"A Brief History of Persian Empire." Pars Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www.parstimes.com/library/brief_history_of_persian_empire.html>.
"A Brief Introduction To Zoroastrianism." Kwintessential. Kwintessential Ltd, 2012. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/religion/zoroastrianism.html>.
Butler, Chris. "The Flow of History." FC15: The Persian Empire. N.p., 2007. Web. 02 Oct. 2012.
<http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/pre/2/FC15>.
Fisher, Casey. "Persian Empire." Persian Empire. Worldology, LLC, 2009. Web. 02 Oct. 2012.
<http://www.worldology.com/Iraq/persian_empire.htm>.
Lambert, Tim. "The Persian Empire." The Persian Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2012.
<http://www.localhistories.org/persians.html>.
"Persian Empire." Persian Empire [ushistory.org]. Ushistory.org, n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2012.
<http://www.ushistory.org/civ/4e.asp>.
"Persian Royal Road (ancient Road, Asia)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/452858/Persian-Royal-Road>. After Cyrus overthrew his grandfather, creating the Persian Empire... Cyrus the Shepard was a Zoroastrian, which showed in his treatment of conquered peoples

For example, when Cyrus conquered Babylon, he gave the Hebrews back religious items that his army had stolen, and allowed the Hebrews to rebuild their temple

Didn't believe in slavery: captured peoples became citizens of Persia

Cyrus' policy of religious tolerance was passed on to all of his successors Persia's conquering of the Greek city-states caused them to unite against Persia
This revolt came to be known as the Greco-Persian Wars
The Greeks were led to victory by Alexander the Great The Greco-Persian Wars: By Katherine Franzen, Dani Platt, Jordon Paige, and Ashley Vonlehe Hour 3 The first place that Cyrus decided to conquer was the Chaldean (Babylonian) Empire in 549 BC

He went on to gain rule over Mesopotamia and the Levant (Israel, Juda, and Syria)

After he conquered these empires, Cyrus set his sights on Egypt, which his son conquered in 525 BC Persian Empire in 550 BCE Location Persia started in what is modern Iran,
It spread its boundaries throughout its rule due to conquest.
It spread through southewestern Asia, conquering Babylon.
Spread east into northern India and north into Uzbekistan.
Spread into Northern Africa, ruling over Egypt and parts of sudan. The Persian Empire prospered because... Since they didn't believe in slavery,the Persians paid workers and artisans to create their monuments
There was freedom of religion and lifestyle
Women could hold government positions
They had a bill of rights called the Cyrus Cylinder What was the Capital of Persia? Persia had many capitals, starting in Susa.
After Susa, Persia's capital became Babylon
then moved to Persepolis. ~ After the death of Xerxes, a lack of a strong ruler that such a large nation needed to prosper.

~ Weak rulers lead to numerous provincial revolts, especially in Egypt, since the Egyptians had always had a distaste of Persian rule.

~Provincial Satrapies became independent, ruling as kings rather subjects. They fought among one another.

~A revolt of Cyrus the Younger against his brother, the current ruler, with the help of a large army of Greek mercenary. Cyrus the younger died in the revolt, leaving the Greek mercenaries stranded in the heart of Persia. This lead to the 10,000 Men March. (These were also known as the wars of Alexander the Great) Battle of Garnicus: In 334 BC, Greek city-states in NW Antanolia were freed by Alexander's armies for the first time in two centuries

Battle of Issus: In 332 BC, the Persian army, led by King Darius III himself, was defeated by Alexander's army, which was less than half the size of Darius'. Darius lost because Alexander took advantage of the mountainous terrain

Alexander in Egypt: In 332 BC, Alexander's troops went to Egypt, where instead of fighting them, the people welcomed them

Battle of Gaugamela: In 331 BC, Alexander fought Darius III's army and won again. Darius escaped but was later killed by his own man The Ten Thousand Man March Artaxerxes II A march of ten thousand Greek mercenaries who were stranded in Persia after the revolt of Cyrus the Younger.
The march would encourage Alexander the Great to invade Persia, which he would conquer in a remarkably short time and with a remarkably small army. Brief Babylon Independence Babylon revolts against Persian rule in 522
Briefly gain independence from Persian Rule
Shortly get crushed again by Persia and reinstate the Archaemenid (Persian) Rule. It was organized! Divided into 20 different provinces called satrapies
Each taxed individually
Each had its own governor
The Royal Road allowed for quick and efficient trade all across Europe and Asia Its people were tolerant! The Persian Empire fell because... The Royal Road Created under the orders of Darius I
A paved road that ran from Susa to Antolla to the Argon Sea (all across Persia)
1,500 miles long
Quickened communication, troop movement, and commerce
Centralized the king's rule
A trip that would take three months without the Road was cut down to seven days of traveling with it Alexander the Grew up in Pella, Macedon
(in Greece)
Became king at age 18
President of the League of Nations, a group formed by Greek city-states in rebellion against Persia
Became the king of Asia after defeating Darius III in battle Great In Conclusion... A New Writing System Darius I ordered the invention of a new Aryan alphabet
Replaced the previous cuneiform
Called the Behistun inscription
Alphabet finished in 519 BC Cyrus Cylinder The Cyrus Cylinder is an ancient clay cylinder found in the ruins of Babylon in Mesopotamia
Believed to be a Persian Bill of Rights. Qanats A crop irrigation system
Created by the Persians under Cyrus
A slanted, underground canal (transfers water with gravity) And when Persia was good and weak... Alexander the Great showed up... Alexander fought Darius III at Guagamela
The Persians lost to the Greek's tiny army
Darius fled but was killed by his own man The Greco-Persian Wars Thus ends the Persian Empire. Now Alexander rules the land in two continents. There were revolts! The Greco-Persian Wars spanned throughout Persia's rule.
Began after an unsuccessful attack of Darius I on Greece.
Didn't end until Alexander the Great conquered Persia after the 10,000 Men March Its influences included... Women were allowed to work and received equal pay to men
The Royal Road spread ideas, religion, plants, and products across two continents
A lasting view of tolerance (religious and cultural)
The rugs are still popular today Some advancements were... Total Ten Panorama Diorama A home: mud-brick, stone, and wood
A workplace: a farm, raising goats and cattle
A daily activity: eating all different kinds of meats and breads
A recreational activity: reading, gardening, worshiping Board Game Travel the Royal Road and see the empire!
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