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Ch. 4 Empires in Transition

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Stephen Labenz

on 31 August 2017

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Transcript of Ch. 4 Empires in Transition

The Empire in Transition
Great Britain, France, and Spain
First Three Wars
King William's War (1689 - 1697)
Queen Anne's War (1701 - 1713)
English launched expeditions to capture Quebec and failed
Native Americans sided with the French due to their trade, often fur trapping
In Queen Anne's War, Britain gained Nova Scotia and trading rights with the Spanish
King George's War (1744 - 1748)
The English were under attack from France and Spain
James Oglethorpe of GA led an army to repel Spanish attacks
New Englanders captured Louisburg (major fortress) in present-day Nova Scotia
In the peace treaty, they gave back Louisburg in exchange for political and economic gains in India
The French and Indian War
The fighting starting in the colonies and spread to Europe
The Seven Years War
The war began in the colonies and spread to Europe
Beginning of the war:
The French built a chain of forts in the Ohio Valley
They wanted to halt the westward growth of the British
Virginia militia under command of George Washington was sent to Ohio Valley near Fort Duquesne, site of present day Pittsburgh
He surrendered his Fort Necessity to the French and native allies
Gen. Edward Braddock, and his 2000 man British army, was beaten by a smaller French force
British invasions of Canada in 1756 & 1757 were repelled
British Victory
William Pitt was England's prime minister
Wanted to conquer Canada
Retook Louisbourg and Quebec surrendered to Gen. James Wolfe and took Montreal
Peace Treaty - IMPORTANT outcome:
French power on the continent had ended
England acquired Canada and Florida
Gave Spain the Louisiana territory (lands West of Mississippi)
Albany Plan
The British government called for representatives from several colonies in 1754
Developed by Benjamin Franklin
Provided for an inter-colonial government
The were hoping to develop a system for recruiting troops and collecting taxes
Never took effect - much to Franklin's chagrin
Set a precedent for the Revolutionary congress
Effects of War
Britain had unchallenged supremacy in N. America and established them as the dominate naval force
There was a fundamental change in the relationship between the colonies and British government.
The British View
Had a low opinion of the colonists/militias
Colonists were unable and unwilling to defend the new frontiers
The Colonial View
Proud of their record in all 4 wars
Had a new confidence
Not impressed with the British troops or their leadership
Pontiac's Rebellion - 1763/4
He led a major rebellion against the colonists
Native Americans were angered by the growing west ward movement
They destroyed forts from Virginia to NY
Proclamation of 1763
Prohibited colonists from settling West of the Appalachian Mountains
Thought it would help prevent future hostilities
The colonists reacted with anger and defiance
Thousands streamed westward
Sugar Act - 1764
Placed duties on foreign luxuries
Purpose: raise money for the Crown after the costly war
Provided stricter enforcement of the Navigation Acts to stop smuggling
Quartering Act - 1765
Required the colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers
Stamp Act - 1765
Lord Grenville, P.M.
Required that all revenue stamps be placed on most printed paper in the colonies
Declaratory Act - 1766
Asserted that Parliament had the right to make laws for the colonies in "all cases whatsoever"
Townshend Acts - begin in 1767
Enacted new duties to be collected on colonial imports
The revenues raised were to be used to pay crown officials in the colonies
Reaction
Many argued forcefully against
"No taxation without representation"
Repealed by
Lord Frederick North, new P.M.
Only kept a small tax on tea
Boston Massacre
Some British guards were attacked by the Sons of Liberty
The guards fired into the crowd and killed 5 people - they were eventually acquitted
Samuel Adams denounced it as a "massacre" although, not surprisingly, the British certainly didn't see it that way.
Boston Tea Party
December, 1773

The Tea Act made the price of the British East India Co. cheaper than that of smuggled Dutch tea
Colonists were ticked that the BEI tea was getting a tax break
Bostonians disguised themselves as Indians and dumped tea overboard
Some applauded it and others thought it was too radical
Coercive Acts - 1774
The Port Act: closed the port of Boston

The Massachusetts Govt. Act: reduced the power of the Massachusetts legislature and increased the royal governor

The Administration of Justice Act: allowed royal officials to be tried in England

The Quartering Act: (expanded) enabled troops to be quartered in private homes
Quebec Act
Organized the Canadian lands gained from France
The Enlightenment
John Locke was an English philosopher
Reasoned that the government is bound to follow "natural law" based on the rights that people have simply because they are human
Believed citizens had a right and obligation to revolt against whatever government failed to protect their rights
Many enlightenment thinkers were Deists (believed God had established natural laws in creating the universe and the role of divine intervention was minimal) God as "clockmaker".

Emphasized reason, science, and respect for humanity
First Continental Congress
September 1774: delegates from all states were sent to a convention
Purpose: to determine how the colonies should react to, what they believed, was an alarming threat to their rights and liberties
Wanted to protest parliamentary intrusions on their rights and restore the relationship with the Crown
Actions of Congress
Urged the various colonies to resist the Intolerable Acts by making military preparations and applying economic sanctions against Great Britain
Wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances in 1775
Called for the meeting of a 2nd congress in May, 1776 if their pleas were not addressed.
Lexington and Concord
Gen. Thomas Gage, commander of Britain troops in Boston, sent a large force to seize military supplies in Concord
American militia in Lexington assembled to face the British
They had to retreat under heavy British fire
British entered Concord
Destroyed military supplies
They were attacked by 100s of militiamen and suffered 250 casualties
Lexington and Concord
- British General Thomas Gage knew something was afoot.
- Orders to arrest Sam Adams and John Hancock who were supposed to be in Lexington.
- April 18, 1775 sent 1000 soldiers to seize illegal supplies.
- William Dawes and Paul Revere did
their famous horse riding to warn of the attack.
L & C, continued...
- Minutemen on hand to greet the Brits and shots were fired (heard "'round the world"); 8 men were killed
- On the way back from Concord, farmers shot at the British and they lost 3x more than colonists
- The Revolution had begun!


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