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World War II

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Elizabeth C.

on 26 May 2015

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Transcript of World War II

Rise of Dictatorship
Italy
1919: Benito Mussolini Founded the National Fascist Party
What is Fascism?
Aggressive Nationalism
Nation > Individual
Nation became great by expanding territory and building up military
Hitler Makes His Move

1933: Hitler withdraws Germany from League of Nations
March 1936: Hitler moves 30,000 troops back into the Rhineland
Again violates Treaty of Versailles
France & League do not act
"The forty-eight hours after the march into the Rhineland were the most nerve-racking in my life. If the French had marched into the Rhineland, we would have had to withdraw with our tail between our legs, for the military resources at our disposal would have been wholly inadequate for even a moderate resistance." - Hitler
What if France would have acted?
Axis Powers
German Troops Enter the Rhineland
France
German Troops Enter the Rhineland
Oct 1936: Germany & Italy form an alliance
Rome-Berlin Axis
Mussolini & Hitler
Italy Germany Japan
Civil War in Spain
July 1936: Gen Francisco Franco leads revolt in Spain against Republicans, Socialists, and Communists elected
Tries to establish fascist dictatorship
Soviet Union supported gov.
Germany, and Italy backed Franco
France & Britain send no aid
US passes treaty: Can't sell to country in civil war
Gen Franco
American Isolationism
President Roosevelt
Hitler Takes Austria
1937: Hitler plans to reunite Germany with Austria
Anschluss: Unification of Austria with Germany
Threatens to invade Austria unless Austrian Nazis given gov. posts
Chancellor quickly gives in
German Troops Enter Austria
Hitler Takes Sudetenland
September 1938: Hitler put claims to Sudetenland, part of Czechoslovakia
Unlike Austria, Sudetenland was a democracy allied with France and the Soviet Union
Also people spoke different languages and had different cultures
Fiercely resisted German unification
British PM Chamberlain publicly supported Czechoslovakia
Chamberlain Hitler Mussolini
Chamberlain arriving in England, telling the British people that he had achieved "peace in our time".
Reaction of the people of the Sudetenland
Appeasement: giving in to someone's demands in order to avoid conflict
March 1939: Hitler, in violation of Munich agreement, sent troops into Czechoslovakia
Broke up the country
Slovakia became independent, yet actually under German control
Czech lands became German Protectorate
Nazi - Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Hitler had his eyes on Poland Next
Danzig - port Germany lost at end of WWI
Polish Corridor - access to German controlled east Prussia
March 31, 1939: Britain and France announce it will come to Poland's aid if the Nazis invade
Signing of the Pact
World War II Begins
Hitler Invades Poland
Sept 1, 1939: German troops invade Poland
Sept 3: Britain & France declare war on Germany
World War II has begun
German Luftwaffe
German Tanks & Infantry
The "Phony War"
Western Europe is quiet
Britain & France prepare for German attack
British sent troops to France
French wait behind the Maginot Line
concrete bunkers along German border
Lack of activity allowed Hitler to focus on Poland
After Poland ->Denmark & Norway
Within one month Germany controlled both
Hitler Targets France
Dunkirk
Soldiers at Dunkirk
British, French & Belgian soldiers retreat to the coast at Dunkirk
Trapped by Germans & English Channel
Hitler mysteriously ordered his army to halt, allowing the "Miracle at Dunkirk"
900 British ships sail across the Chanel to
340,000 British, French & Belgian soldiers rescued
Small victory, keep up morale despite the overall defeat
German Troops Enter France
Great Britain Stands Alone
Winston Churchill
British Prime Minister
Hitler Targets England
Battle of Britain
1940 Chamberlain resigns and Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister
Churchill refuses peace with Germany
Only German entry into Britain was the English Channel
Air force could easily bomb German ships
Thus Germany launched an air battle to destroy British Air Force
Known as "Battle of Britain"
German Luftwaffe begins bombing of England
R.A.F.: Royal Air Force defends the skies over England
The London Blitz
Accidentally bombed London
Britain bomb Berlin in retaliation
Hitler, enraged, launched an attack on London to terrorize citizens into surrendering
Last 76 straight nights
British develop RADAR
Intercepted Luftwaffe and inflected losses
Germany Fails to break British spirits
Hitler Invades Russia
After calling off Britain invasion, Hitler violates the Nazi-Soviet act to invade the Soviet Union
1941:Operation Barbarossa
3 million German troops invade Soviet Union
“The Red Army, the Red Navy, and all citizens of the Soviet Union must defend every inch of Soviet soil, must fight to the last drop of blood for our towns and villages, must display the daring, initiative and mental alertness characteristic of our people.”
Destroyer-for-Bases Deal
Where did the aid go?
Churchill asked Roosevelt to transfer old American destroyers to Britain
Roosevelt used a loophole to Neutrality
In exchange for right to build bases in British controlled Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Caribbean
Sent 50 destroyers to Britain
Since it wasn't a "sale" it didn't apply to Neutrality act
Atlantic Charter
In 1941, Roosevelt & Churchill meet off the coast of Newfoundland
Discuss the war
Plan for a postwar Europe
Atlantic Charter
Declaration committing the two leaders to postwar world of Democracy, nonaggression, economic advancement, and freedom of the seas
US Aids China
U.S. provided Lend-Lease military aid to China against Japan
Recall: Japan launched full-scale attack on China in 1937 and controlled most of coast
U.S. wants to stop Japan from expanding too far into the Pacific
1940: Japan invades Indochina
U.S. creates an embargo on Japan, stop trading with Japan & freeze all financial assets ($)
would lift embargo if Japan made peace with China
Japan begins planning attack on British/Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, Philippines, and the U.S. Pacific Navy @ Pear Harbor
Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor
The Plan
Japanese appeared to be negotiating in Good Faith
Washington didn't think Pearl Harbor was a target -> fatal error
Navy will sail to Hawaii
Launch air attack on US fleet at Pearl Harbor
Destroy US naval power in the Pacific
MUST destroy aircraft carriers & fuel reserves
The Attack
December 7, 1941, Sunday morning
Japanese carriers launch 2 waves of fighter planes
Fly to Pearl Harbor
Bomb ships along Battle Ship row
Bomb airfields & radio stations
The Damage
2,403 Americans killed
1,178 wounded
21 ships sunk or damaged; 188 planes
America At War With The Axis Powers
December 8, 1941: President Roosevelt asks Congress for a declaration of war against Japan
Two days later Germany & Italy declare war on the US
US joins Great Britain as a member of the Allied Powers
America will now fight a two-theater war
Pacific Theater: Japan
European Theater: Germany & Italy
Japan Strikes in the Pacific
Bataan Death March
April 9, 1942: US & Filipino forces surrender in the Philippines
Japanese march 78k prisoners to POW camps 60 miles away
7,000 - 10,000 died on the march
Prisoners were beaten, killed, denied water
Images of the March
"The hours dragged by and, as we knew they must. The drop-outs began. It seemed that a great many of the prisoners reached the end of their endurance at about the same time. They went down by twos and threes. Usually, they made an effort to rise. I never can forget their groans and strangled breathing as they tried to get up. Some succeeded. Others lay lifelessly where they had fallen." - Lt. Colonel William Dyess
By 1942 Japan controlled much of Southeast Asia and the Pacific west of Hawaii.
America Strikes Back
Japan had been on the offensive & had been victorious for 5 months
The US needed a victory
Lt. Col. James Doolittle organizes a bombing raid on Japan
April 12, 1942: USS Hornet sails 600 miles from Japan
Doolittle's Raiders take-off & head to Tokyo
Japanese did not believe American planes could reach the mainland
The raid targets factories & military targets
The raid is successful and for the first time, bombs fell on Japan
The Raids lift American spirits & morale
Japan could be hit
Japanese military pulls planes from the Pacific to defend the island
Doolittle & his Raiders
Doolittle's modified bombers onboard the USS Hornet prior to take-off
Turning Point Battles
Battle of the Coral Sea: May 1942
The Outcome
USS Lexington
America Goes Island Hopping
Planned two-prong attack in Japan
Nimitz would advance in the Pacific by Island hopping
MacArthur would go to Solomon Island -> recapture New Guinea
Island Hopping
Battle of El Alamein
Allies must gain control of North Africa & Protect the Suez Canal
Important for sending supplies from India, Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia.
Allies led by Gen Bernard Montgomery
Axis led by Gen Erwin Rommel "Desert Fox"
troops called "Arika Korps"
Plan was to trap Germans between Americans on the West and British on the East
May 1943: Germany surrenders in N. Africa
North Africa will be used as the launching area for the Allied invasion of Sicily & then Italy
Invade Europe from the south
Montgomery
Rommel
Battle of Stalingrad
"Not one step backward"

- Stalin's message to the Russian people
German army begins to surrender
Just as Midway put Japanese on defensive, Stalingrad put Germany on the defensive
Hitler Speech to the Party
Frenchman Jerôme Barzetti weeps as the Nazi Army marches through Marseille
Hitler Tours Paris
Hitler Meets Petain for the French surrender
News reel footage on the London Blitz
The Attack
Setting the Stage
Treaty of Versailles that ended WWI in 1918 led to economic depression, specifically in Germany
Paved the way for antidemocratic governments
Why did Fascism work?

Offered working class employment and Social Security
1922 March on Rome
Mussolini and his militia (Blackshirts) marched on Rome to takeover
King did nothing -> cabinet resigned
Resulted in an agreement with King Victor Emmanuel III
Made Mussolini head of Italian Government
Became known as Il Duce "The Leader"
USSR
After Russian Revolution of 1917, Bolshevik party led by Vladimir Lenin established communism throughout Russia
1922: Renamed communist Russia Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or the Soviet Union
Established a one-party rule
Suppressed individual liberties
Punished opponents
Stalin in power
Lenin died in 1924
Joseph Stalin comes to power in 1926
1927: Effort to Industrialize with series of 5 Year Plans
Responsible for the death of 8-10 million peasants (Kulaks) that opposed him

Japan
Due to economic hardship, Japan relied heavily on imports
Depression led to high tariffs; not enough money from exports to pay for imports
Military blamed politicians and disliked democracy
felt Japan needed to seize territory in Asia
targeted resource-rich Manchuria in China
1931: Army invaded Manchuria despite the Japanese government's opposition
assassinated PM Tsuyoshi
sets up puppet government
Germany
Hitler was an anticommunist/admirer of Mussolini
Fought in WWI -> Treaty of Versailles left him hating the Allies and the German gov. for accepting peace terms
Established the National Socialist German Workers Party
Around Maginot Line
French Surrender
June 22, 1940: Hitler accepted French surrender
Puppet government set up in Vichy with Petain in charge
Hitler cancels invasion
Neutrality Act of 1935
Neutrality Act of 1937
With the situation getting worse, Congress passes new act
Continued ban on arms sales
Also required nonmilitary supplies to be bought on a "cash and carry" basis
had to pay cash and pick up goods with own ships
no loans
Roosevelt still supported Internationalism
When Japan launched full-scale attack on China in 1937, Roosevelt sold to China
Said neither country declared war
U.S. Enters the War
U.S. Provides Aid
Neutrality Act of 1939
Roosevelt Elected for 3rd Term
Lend-Lease Act
Hemispheric Defense Zone
U.S. Puts Pressure on Japan
Between 1939-1941 Britain needed protection from Japan as well
moving ships to Atlantic left them vulnerable to Japanese attack
Roosevelt put economic pressure on Japan to discourage an attack
Japan relied on U.S. for iron, steel, and oil
Export Control Act: restricted sale of "strategic materials"
Ex: airplane fuel and iron
Furious, Japan officially signed an alliance with Germany and Italy --> Axis
Roosevelt's Address
U.S. Production
U.S. Production
African Americans in combat
The Early Battles
Doolittle Raid
Japanese Navy Changes Strategy
Codebreakers
Pacific
N.Africa
Atlantic
Life on the Home Front
America goes to Work
Bracero Spanish Program
Great Migration Continues
Zoot Suit Riot
Japanese Relocation
Europe
WORLD WAR II
Pushing Axis Back
V-E Day
Casablanca Conference
Capturing of Italy
Tehran Conference
Operation Overload
First Steps
The Plan
The Longest Day
MacArthur returns to Philippines
Battle of the Bulge
Victory in Europe
Iwo Jima
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
United Nations
Nuremberg Trials
In 1923, Hitler tried to seize power by marching on city hall, leading to his arrest
In jail, he wrote the autobiography Mein Kampf
aka "My Struggle"
called for unification of Germans in one gov.
master race was Aryans
called for expansion in Poland/Russia
prejudice towards Jews
Mein Kampf
Rather than takeover by force, Hitler and the Nazi became the largest party in Reichstag (parliament)
1933 - President elects Hitler as Chancellor/Prime Minister
Hitler's Storm Troopers (parliamentary units) cracked down on Socialist and Communist parties
Reichstag voted to give Hitler dictatorial powers
1934 - Hitler becomes President
gave himself title of Fuhrer "Leader"
Next year began rebuilding military in violation of Treaty of Versailles
Hitler becomes Fuhrer
Great Depression in America
Priority is American economy & jobs, not foreign problems
Isolationism: America keeps to itself, not get involved in other nation's problems
Dictatorships discouraged Americans
By 1934 all debtor nations except Finland stopped paying war debts
Nye Committee found profits of arms factories/WWI
Made it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war
Mussolini
1 month later Japan joins the alliance
Become known as the Axis Powers
formally allies in 1940
Chancellor tries put unification with Germany to democratic vote
Hitler, fearing the outcome, invades
March 12, 1938: Nazi Troops march into Austria
Austria officially unites with Germany the following month
Munich Conference
Sept 29, 1938: Munich Conference
Germany, France,Italy and Britain decide what to do
Appeasement to Hitler for peace
If he promises not to take any more land
Czechoslovakia told to give up Sudetenland or fight alone
Hitler agrees to these terms
Hitler prepares to invade Poland
Began negotiations with USSR
Recall: Nazis & Communists hate each other
Both sides want to avoid war with one another
Aug 23, 1939: Nazis & Soviets sign a nonaggression pact, agree not to go to war
Pact shocks the World
Britain & France had been asking the Russians to join an alliance
Soviets & Germans agree to divide Poland
Germany will take the west, USSR will invade the east
New style of warfare: Blitzkrieg "Lightning War"
Large # of massed tanks breakthrough and encircle territory with air force (Luftwaffe) bombing and para trooping
Sept: Warsaw fell to Germans
Oct: Poland army defeated
Hitler goes around Maginot Line, through Belgium and Netherlands
British and French raced to North Belgium
Germany easily beat them there and trap them
Blitz fails to break the British spirits
Oct 12, 1940: Hitler canceled invasion of Britain
Officially proclaimed U.S. neutral after Britain and France declared war
Roosevelt asked Congress to eliminate ban on arms sell to nations at war
Warring nations could buy arms if they paid cash and carried on their own ships
1940: Roosevelt ran for unprecedented third term against Wendell Willkie
U.S. people voted for Roosevelt; no change during crisis
After election, Roosevelt could expand U.S. role in the war
Spoke to Congress in Four Freedoms speech
Speech
Worship
From want
From fear

1941: Act stated U.S. could lend/lease arms to any country considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
Meant the U.S. could send weapons without cash payment if British promised to return/pay rent after the war
America sent more than 40 billion in weapons/vehicles
Lend-lease Act didn't solve problem of getting supplies to British
German submarines patrolling the Atlantic were sinking ships carrying supplies
Roosevelt developed the Hemispheric Defense Zone
declared the Western half of the Atlantic Neutral
Ordered U.S. Navy to patrol Western Atlantic and reveal locations of German submarines to the British
Tensions escalate in Atlantic
German U-Boat fired at American Destroyer
Roosevelt gave a "Shoot-on-Sight" order to Americans
Germans targeted 2 destroyers
split destroyer Reuben James in half
Tensions escalating..
U.S. industrial output astounded the world
Turned the tides in favor of the Allies
5X more than Japan
2X more than Germany
U.S. had prepared
When German Blitzkrieg hit France in 1940, Roosevelt declared a National Emergency
Announced plan to build 50k warplanes/ships
Roosevelt gave industries incentives
Cost-plus contacts: gov. would pay for product making plus a percentage of the profit
Additionally congress gave authority to Reconstruction Finance Corporation to cover cost of converting to war production
By 1941: economy was prepared for war
By 1942: almost all companies/industries converted to war production
Production (cont.)
Tanks, Planes, and Ships
Automobile industry produced nearly 1/3 of military equipment
Ford: Assembly line of B-24 Bomber
Kaiser: Liberty Ships - welded
War Production Board
set priorities & production goals
clashed with military
Office of War Mobilization created to settle arguments/avoid strikes
B-24 Bomber
Liberty Ship
Building an Army
Within days of attack on Poland, Roosevelt expanded army to 227K soldiers
After French surrender, Congress made Selective Service and Training Act
First peacetime draft in U.S. History
Flood of draftees in training facilities
GI = Government Issue
While training was poor, kinship formed
At start of war, U.S. Army was segregated and kept out of combat
Roosevelt told army to recruit African Americans and put them into combat
African Americans supported the Double V
Victory over Hitler
Victory over racism at home
Notable combat groups
1941: Tuskegee Airmen (Air Force)
1943: 332nd Fighter Group
Although Segregation didn't end, bases were integrated in 1943
Truman integrated in 1949
Tuskegee Airmen
333nd Fighter Group
200 Missions
0 loses
Women Joined the Armed Forces
Women were banned from combat
1942: Established Women's Army Auxiliary Corps
replaced with Women's Army Corps
Mostly women served as Admin/Clerical or as Nurses
Over 68,000 served as nurses
"They walk like free men."
-Czech soldier on American soldiers walking out of step.
A few hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked the Philippines
Four months later, Philippines fell
Commander Douglas MacArthur ordered to retreat by Roosevelt
"I came through, I shall return"
Douglas MacArthur
The Plan
Use of long range bombers instead of short-range on carriers
Needed to land in China since long-range bombers couldn't land on short deck
Few believed it could be done
Following the Doolittle Raid, Japanese Navy changed strategy
Originally aimed for New Guinea
Admiral Yamamoto wants to hit Midway Island
last base in N. Pacific west of Hawaii
plan was to lure Allie fleet into battle and destroy it
New Guinea attack went on as planned, but 3 carries now assigned to Midway
Unbeknownst to Japan, American team of codebreakers in Hawaii ha broken Japanese Navy Secret Code
Learned about attacks on New Guinea and Midway
Battle of Coral Sea
Midway Island
Americans sent Yorktown and Lexington (carries) to intercept Japan
Japan sunk Lexington and damaged Yorktown
However forced Japan to call off advance
Admiral Nimitz (in charge of Navy ops against Japan) positioned to ambush Japanese
Succeeded -> turning point in the war
Japan lost 4 largest carriers
stopped the Japanese advance in Pacific
362 Americans killed; 3,057 Japanese Killed
America now on the offensive
War against German submarines in Atlantic intensified
Convoy System
However:
Production!
Technology!
This turn the Battle of the Atlantic in favor of the Allies
Overall WWII had positive effect on American Society at home
15 million Americans moved West and South to get more work
Detroit Riot
Violence erupted in Detroit on 6-20-43
Hot day in Detroit
100k went to river
fight broke out
led to riot
24 African American killed; 9 Whites killed
Americans blamed Japanese Americans for Pearl Harbor
1942: Roosevelt give War Dept. permission
1944: Supreme Court case Korematsu vs. US
1945: Government began releasing Japanese
1988: Reagan apologized
Between 110-120k Japanese Americans relocated
Lost their possessions, jobs, homes
62% were American Citizens
Prices & Rations
Price regulation by:
Office of Price Administration
Office of Economic Stabilization
War Labor Board
Rationing
Rose taxes
War bonds
Outcome
To know: Which beach faced difficulty?
156,000 troops landed on D-Day
One week later, June 11, beaches were secure
D-Day Clip
"I have returned. By the grace of Almighty God, our forces stand again on Philippine soil."
Hitler's last attempt
Patton
American/British - freeing France
Soviet Union - attacked Germans in Russia
forced the Germans out and back across Poland
Soviets on the East, Americans on the West
Hitler knew he was losing the war
April 30, 1945: Hitler puts a pistol in his mouth
names Doenitz his successor
May 7, 1945: Germany surrenders
May 8, 1945: V-E Day! Victory in Europe
Unfortunately Roosevelt did not live to see Germany's defeat
Died of stroke on April 12, 1945
Bombs wouldn't reach Japan from Mariana Islands
U.S. planned to invade Iwo Jima
Victory at a cost
Okinawa
While Battle of Iwo Jima was won, it wasn't much use
U.S. needed a base closer to Japan
Chose Okinowa
Under the Manhattan project i 1941, Roosevelt had begun building the atomic bomb
July 1945: detonated first bomb in New Mexico
Truman decided to do it
Allies threaten Japan with "prompt and utter destruction" if they do not fully surrender
Aug 6, 1945: dropped "Little Boy" on Hiroshima
destroyed 63% of buildings
80-120,000 killed instantly, thousands later from radiation or burns
Three days later, Soviet Union declared war on Japan
Later that day, dropped "Fat Man" on Nagasaki
killed 35-75,000
Japanese emperor ordered government surrender
August 15, 1945: V-J Day. Victory in Japan
Footage of Testing
1944: Washington DC
Delegates in 39 countries met to discussUnited Nations
General Assembly
Security Council
1945: Created Charter

Philip Randolph
Full transcript