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Nationalism In Europe: Italy
Transcript of Nationalism In Europe: Italy
Causes of Nationalism in Italy
Before Napoleon invaded Italy the country was split into individual states, each with their own individual government. However, when Napoleon invaded Italy he combined the many different states to make one big nation. This worked out well, because most of the states spoke relatively the same language. However, when Napoleon was defeated, the Congress of Vienna broke the the country back into individual states. This is the point of time when nationalism started to rise in Italy. Italy was broken into three groups, northern Italy was under Austrian rule, another part was under the control of the Hapsburg's, and some states were still ruled by the French. Italian nationalism occurred in opposition to these countries. The people of Italy wanted to be united as one nation. Italian nationalists rebelled against their rulers, and some states even declared war against their rulers. Many rebellions failed, and people were feeling disappointed, and hopeless. Then one of the most important leaders for Italian unification emerged, Camillo di Cavour. Cavour believed that the Italian nationalist movement was strong enough to unite Italy. He founded a nationalist newspaper called Il Risorgimento. The newspaper promoted nationalistic behavior, and talked about the rebirth of Italy. Il Risorgimento was also the name for Italian unification, and freedom from Austrian control. In 1852 Cavour became prime minister of the independent Kingdom of Sardinia. Cavour then supported the French in a war with Russia, and gave France the providence of Savoy and Nice. In return France became an ally with Sardinia when they went to war with Austria. Sardinia won the war against Austria, and the northern Italian states were free from the control of the Austrian Empire. Nationalism grew stronger for the Italians, as they continued to fight for a united nation.
We are untied, all of us
Each by flesh and each by blood
Our native tongue, we all speak
But foreigners seem to make us weak
Our Catholic Church unties us all
We must stand together, let no one fall
Rid the foreigners that make us weak!
It's united Italy's turn to speak!
So help gain back the states forgotten!
As we've gained back Sardinia from Austria
Let's take back our country land
No longer separate, united we stand!
We are United, All of Us
Nationalism in Italy
Another revolutionary, leader was Camillo di Cavor, who believed that a nationalist movement was strong enough to unite Italy. Cavour helped Sardinia revolt in 1848, and was the only successful revolt during the revolution. Cavour later became the prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia and set up a new constitution for the independent state.
Liberation from Austria
Cavour believed that Italy should be reborn as a powerful monarchy. He also helped set up a powerful ally- France. France helped Sardinia overthrow the Austrian Empire, thus freeing the northern Italian states.
Giuseppe Garibaldi was the leader of a nationals group known as the Red Shirts. This group was mostly made up of young Italian democrats, who wore red shirts in battle. The Red Shirts used tactics of guerrilla warfare, and helped Garibaldi Conquer the city of Naples. They also gained the control of the island of Sicily. The Red Shirts were a very important group in Italian history, and they helped Italy become a united country.
Many Italian nationalistic leaders made alliances with other countries to help them win battles. For example, Camillo di Cavour made an alliance with the French, when he and his armies were at war with Austria. This alliance lead to the defeat of Austria, and by 1860 the northern Italian states were no longer under the control of the Austrian Empire.
Young Italy is Formed
Revolutionaries Seize Rome
In 1849, Mazzini and other revolutionaries seized Rome and set up a republic that he helped govern. But after a short time, French troops helped the pope gain back control over Rome. Later in 1870, the Italian Army went back to the Papal States to try and peacefully negotiate territory.
The Red Shirts
Camillo di Cavour founded a newspaper called the Il Risorgimento, which means resurgence or rebirth. The movement for Italian unification and freedom from Austrian control was given this name also. Camillo believed that the Italian nationalist movement was strong enough to unite Italy, despite the differences between the Italian states. The newspaper that he wrote helped nationalistic ideas throughout Italy.
Giuseppe Mazzini, who was one of the revolutionary leaders, founded Young Italy to create a united Italian republic. Mazzini believed that an uprising would help create a unified Italy. Young Italy helped Italians become educated about their political role.
Founding of Il Risorgimento
Effects of Nationalism In Italy
Nationalistic ideas inspired people to fight for what they believed in; a united Italy.
Many people that belonged to different Italian states worked together to achieve the same goal.
Nationalism lead to new strong leaders that helped shape the history of Italy.
New war techniques such as guerrilla warfare helped Italian troops win battles, and build a stronger army.
Italian artists, writers, and thinkers became interested in celebrating Italy's cultural traditions.
Created tensions with Neighboring countries that did not want Italy to challenge them.
Nationalism lead to war, and the deaths of many soldiers on both sides of the fight.
Nationalism lead to groups of people rebelling against their government, which is never an ideal situation.