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Integration, Segregation and Assimilation
Transcript of Integration, Segregation and Assimilation
Structured Integration Activity
When I am finished reading the story, turn to an elbow partner and talk about this question:
Why do you think Goldilocks went into the Bear's house?
Remember - you will be writing about this! So the more you talk to your partner about, the more you will have to write about!
Shifting Perspectives: The Language of Integration
Segregation vs. Assimilation
The classroom must become a safe place to integrate not only language but culture and identity.
It is important to remember the needs and abilities of the students, because TWI programs are not effective for everyone, just like segregation/assimilation aren't effective for everyone.
Consider context and instructional goals
Integration, Segregation and Assimilation
Policy to Practice: Challenges to Student Integration
Chapter 11: Structuring for Integration
The Cost of Segregation:
Throughout history, ESL students have been a minority group overlooked in schools and were placed in outside-the-mainstream programs (segregated). These programs demonstrated discrepancies between bilingual and general education classrooms, which hindered ELL's . Also, ESL students were often put into remedial classrooms because they could not speak English.
Bilingual education needs to be conceptualized as an integrated model, rather than a separate program that leads to marginalization and fragmentation.
"Segregation can come at a high cost if the group is treated inequitably or their program is assigned a low-status position with access to fewer resources than other programs." (De Jong)
Conditions for Implementing the Principle of Structuring for Integration to Benefit both Homogeneous Groupings as well as Heterogeneous Groupings:
School organization: How are multiple programs, their staff and their students included into whole school decision-making? How are transitions from one program to another facilitated?
Program structure: How do programs include meaningful opportunities for interaction with teachers and students from other programs?
Curriculum decisions: How is there consistency among grade levels and programs in curriculum content and equal access to materials and other resources to teach?
Pedagogical decisions: How do all teachers across programs in the school use strategies that acknowledge the strengths and needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students?
Classroom organization: How is peer interaction facilitated? Do all students have equal opportunities to participate in small groups as well as in whole classroom instruction?
Differential Acquisition Contexts in TWI Program
Minority students (learning the dominant language) in TWI programs have many opportunities to practice speaking English (because of its prevalence), while majority students (learning a second language) don't always have the same opportunities to practice their oral fluency.
The differentiated growth patterns can be challenging for teachers, because students learning the majority language will develop their oral and basic literacy skills faster than students who are learning the minority language.
Teacher Accommodations During Integration
Student's Language Use During Integration
The Tensions of Integration
The Cost of Assimilation:
Assimilation is argued to be "the best solution for language minority schooling" by way of educating bilingual learners alongside native English speakers in the mainstream classroom. Native speakers are thought to be great models to assist in scaffolding language learning for L1's.
Assimilation avoids physical segregation but ultimately leads to unequal treatment of language minority students and their need for linguistic and cultural resources.
Assimilation of ELL's into the mainstream classroom has the opportunity to be beneficial to both native and minority language speakers, but only when assisted with strategies and programs that fulfill both groups by a culturally responsive teacher or trained support staff.
Finding the Balance Toward Integration:
The Principle of Structuring for Integration proposes that grouping bilingual learners together can support their cognitive sociocultural and linguistic development. "Shared incompetence as second language learners may actually lower the anxiety to perform which leads these students to take risks and participate in a mainstream setting"
Being with other bilingual students gives an advantage to ELL's with the use of careful grouping.
Specialized programs in collaboration of the mainstream inclusive classroom and trained staff provide for targeted support of second language development.
The Principle of Structuring for Integration mediates between segregation and assimilation by giving specialized attention to linguistic and cultural needs in the way of providing school programs and ESL strategies as part of an inclusive mainstream classroom with trained support.
By Kalyn Riblett and Mary Elizabeth Thomas
Because of the differences in acquisition contexts, second language learners often communicate more in their dominant language (because they have not acquired enough skills to communicate effectively in the minority language). Because of this, minority language speakers (who are acquiring the dominant language faster) have more opportunities to develop their oral fluency.
The language choices that each student makes can also be caused by society's outlook on the language, and a student's own identity.
The overall goal of TWI programs is for both minority students and majority students have ample opportunities to practice their second language development. But due to the different needs of each group, this is not always an effective approach.
"The use of flexible cooperative learning groupings that are based on native or second language proficiency becomes a key strategy in creating equitable integrated TWI and non-TWI classrooms."
In TWI programs, teachers must make modifications to their instruction often, and this can sometimes result in an uneven amount of emphasis on the majority language. This is because teachers often focus more on comprehension skills and less on production skills when assisting second language learners.
Although these accommodations might seem to help support second language learners, they can actually take away their opportunities to interact and practice using their oral languages.
Why do you think Goldilocks went into the three bears' house?
Please answer the following question on a half sheet of paper in one or two sentences: