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History Relevant to the Arab-Israeli War
Transcript of History Relevant to the Arab-Israeli War
The 21st Century
Late 19th Century
History Relevant to the Arab-Israeli War
nationalist notion of cultural and political unity among Arab countries of the Middle East.
during the following the Arab Israeli War in 1973, these nations came together and used their oil as an international political and economic weapon.
the defeat of the Arabs from the 1967 Arab Israeli War and the death of Nasser of Egypt set back Pan Arabism.
starting occurring from the late 19th century to the early 20th century.
can be traced backed to the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
they have rejected the historic non-domestic Arab rule by Egypt over the Gaza Strip and Jordan.
Notables- a group of high social class and power. Mostly powerful families. They were used to act as intermediaries between the authorities and the people.
Goals: they wanted Palestinian statehood and they wanted to expand Palestine's borders.
It was the home of the Jews- founded by Abraham, Issac, and Jacob who were led to bring the formation of a people with the belief in One God.
A famine forced Jacob and his 12 sons (later the 12 tribes of Israel) to move to Egypt - Years later Moses leads the Jews back to the land of their forefathers (aka. Israel)
There were two kings: Saul then David and then it split into two kingdoms: Kingdom of Judah and Kingdom of Israel
- the land of Israel was ruled by six major empires: Egyptians/Assyrians/Babylonians/Persians/Greeks/Romans
Ottoman Empire Rule (1517-1917) - promoted the Zionism movement
Britain Rule (1918-1948)- Mandate for Palestine- promoted the creation of the State of Israel because they recognized the historical connection between the Jews and Israel
Palestine (migratory/rolling) was a common name used until 1948 to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. (aka. Israel)
The ancient inhabitants of Palestine were actually ancient greeks rather than Arabs
Many people lived there and invaded it because of its location as a crossroads to chief civilizations (Egyptians/ Byzantines/Romans)
Egyptians/Assyrians/Babylonians/Persians/Greeks/Romans controlled it at different points during its history
In biblical terms the land was called Canaan before the Israelites conquered the land after Moses brought them back from Egypt
Throughout the Jewish Diaspora the people living in Palestine began to consider it their home
In 1914 before the Zionist movement caused Jews to migrate back to Israel about 49% of the population was Palestinian Arabs
Jewish Nationalist Movement
Grew to prominence in the early 20th century
Desire for a Palestinian state for Jews
Derived from Hebrew word for Jerusalem
Support at its strongest after World War II
Largely responsible for creation of modern Israel
World War I
Ottoman Empire = Peace and Stability in Middle East for almost 400 years
Promoted Turkish primacy over Arabs
Led Arabs and Jews to support Allies in WWI and promote Arab nationalism
Fall of the Ottoman Empire led to the creation of power vacuums and conflicting claims of national identity, despite the boundaries drawn by the victors in the war
Massive Oil Reserves in Middle East
U.S. imported most oil from this area
U.S. national policy in regards to Middle East
Major American/UN support for Israel
U.S. = Israel's "Watchdog"/"Big Brother"
In 1947, Great Britain relinquished to the UN the power to make decisions relating to the status of the Land of Israel. The General Assembly appointed a special committee that collected evidence and decided unanimously that Israel should be granted independence. Most of the committee members favored partitioning the land into two states, a Jewish state and an Arab state, with Jerusalem under international supervision.
British Mandate of Palestine
Henry McMahon convinced Hussein bin Ali to lead an Arab Revolt (1916-1918) against the Ottoman Turks
British Captain T.E. Lawrence was successful in defeating the Ottomans
1917 British took control of Palestine
British issued the Balfour Declaration in support of Jews, despite Arab anger
After WWI it became the British Mandate of Palestine, composed of Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip
Starting in 1920, the Palestinian Arabs protested the unfair preferences of the Jewish immigrants set by the British Mandate