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Industrial Revolution - England

Causes & Effects of the Industrial Revolution on England and the World
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Ana-Marija Skiljevic

on 20 August 2010

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Transcript of Industrial Revolution - England

Industrial Revolution
England THE COTTAGE INDUSTRY CAUSES
"the process of inclosing (with fences, ditches, hedges, or other barriers) land formerly subject to common rights" ECONOMICS 75 % of English population making living off the land
active during summer; not much to do during winter
time = opportunity to make money by producing texitles

PROCESS:
(1) Cloth Merchant + $ to trave & purchase wool from sheep farm
(2) Distribution of raw materials among farming households
(3) Preparation of wool by a) women and girls
b) men
(4) Cloth Merchant picked up the finished cloth; sold it in cities or exported

EFFECTS:
(1) Subcontracting - employing one to complete work on a project for one's company
(2) Boost in English economy - trade with India and West
(3) At first, funds for the rural families but later with the onset of the Agricultural Revolution the people who came to depend on this work were forced to leave the country and move to cities for work.

Farms were established on "common land" which local farmers leased from a wealthy proprietor who owned large areas of land in a district
Rules prevented a landlord from expelling a tenant without a reasonable cause; farms passed down through a peasant family for generations
Land was divided into long narrow strips: area grew smaller as the land was split into more parts for each succeeding generation
New methods of agriculture began to be developed, it became clear that they would be more efficient with larger plots of land (i.e. crop rotation)
GENERAL ENCLOSURE ACT 1801:Land returned to landowners; they redistributed as they saw fit

EFFECT:
(1) Dispossessed peasants moved to the city looking for work.
ENCLOSURE (1) NEW BANKING SYSTEM
private banking - founded by those who were involved in a variety of endeavors (goldsmith, merchant, manufacturer)
credit facilities
economic stimulus
(2) STABLE ENVIRONMENT
national monarchies = steady economic system (Bill of Rights)
(3) CAPITAL FOR INVESMENT
gold & silver from the colonies
wealthy had more money to spend on ideas and products
(4) CAPITALISM
Adam Smith; competition = boom in economic expansion
increased desire to further the industrialization and gain money Why was England first? Coal Raw supplies from colonies colonial markets education "modern" government
bank of england 1694 Britain's rail lines (1838-1850)
540 kim to 6621: transportation for the product technological innovations agricultural revolution Jethro Tull
seed drill - planting deep into earth
horse hoe - a horse pulled a plow

Lord "turnip" Townshend
four-course rotation of crops; helped keep the ground good for farming almost all year
cycle consisted of wheat, turnips, oats or barley, and clover

Robert Bakewell
stock breeder of farm animals
bread only animals with certain qualities; more livestock
kept elaborate genealogical records of his valuable animals Horse Hoe Source: planetwhizbang.blogspot.com Seed Drill Source: teara.govt.nz EFFECT
output increased 3.5 x
more productive farms = more free people = larger workforce for the cities technological innovations were inspired by products and the desire for faster production (i.e.) COTTON: in great demand by the upper class John Kay's "Flying Shuttle"
Using cords attached to a picking peg, a single weaver, using one hand, could operate the shuttle on the loom
Doubled weaver's production
James Hargreaves "Spinning Jenny" 1764
allowed one person to spin many threads at once; increased amount of finished cotton
eight threads on one wheel; eighty
20000 in use by 1778 Richard Arkwright's "Water Frame"
1764; faster production of yarn
replaced the spinning jenny, with the ability to turn raw cotton into strong, durable cotton-thread quickly
technological innovations EFFECTS
yarn became industrialized
the cost of making cotton yarn had dropped
the number of workers needed to turn wool into yarn had been reduced
moved the stress from production --> supply of raw cotton
import of raw cotton from Americas increased by 8 times
50% of Britain's exports = refined cotton technological innovations James Watt's "Steam Engine"
1769; patented the steam engine
created a new source of power.
use of steam power Robert Fulton's "Steamboat"
1807; used steam power to create the first steamboat,
changed the way and the speed in which materials could be moved between the colonies of Britain Stephenson's "Steam Powered Train"
1814; used the steam engine to create a steam powered train
increased communication and trade b/w continental places
the building of railroads in other European countries
railroads became a standard item of British export effects on england THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE
villages; farming; working by hand - city; machines; factory work
less money for working longer hours (no labour laws) + higher living expenses due to urbanization = families struggling to survive
women and children were sent out to work; 75% of early workers
laissez-faire approach taken by the government—and advocated by philosopher-economist Adam Smith—allowed for capitalism
little or no government regulations imposed upon factory policies = wealthy, middle-class owners pursue whichever path is most profitable, regardless of the safety and well being of their workers
share housing; slums; unsantary living conditions; increased infant mortality (50% of newborns died before 2 yrs old)
effects continued. Dissent in england THE LUDDITES
movement to protest the IR
1811; manufacturers in the city of Nottingham were being threatened; letters from General Ned Ludd & Army of Redressers
problem:reduced wages; replacement with unskilled laborers
laborers revolted: broke into factories, destroyed equipment
Yorkshire - killing of mill owner William Horsfall
1812 law made destruction a capital offence
PETERLOO
1819; reform meeting in Manchester on Aug. 16th
met at St. Peter's Field; 50 000 people
Henry Hunt and Richard Carlile led the protest; spoke out
city officials called in the military; led by Captain Hugh Birley
- 11 dead; 400 wounded EFFECTS CONTINUED
SADLER REPORT and legal reforms 1833 Sadler Reprort: documented the poor social conditions in Britain
Sadler committee investigated work and living conditions of the working classes; took testimonies of the working class
Found evidence of human rights abuse; terrible working conditions; suggested reforms to avoid social unrest EFFECTS CONTINUED
POLITICS REFORM BILL OF 1832
enfranchised 20% of males in England; gave voting rights to middle class factory owners
the Act granted seats in the House of Commons to large cities that had sprung up during the Industrial Revolution, and took away seats from the smaller villages—those with very small populations SOCIALISM more state influence; opposited individualism and laissez-faire politics
equal rights
end to inhumanity
KARL MARX (1818-1883) German political philosopher

In 1843 Marx and Friedrich Engels met; both were members of the German Communist League
the two friends were commissioned to write the Communist Manifesto; published in 1848 - a.k.a the definitive text for socialism and communism
Marx outlined his belief that all aspects of an individual's life are determined by that individual's relationship to the means of production
Classes were established by the various degrees of connection to the means of production, whether direct ownership, or factory work
Governing classes always owned the means of production while the least powerful working class (or proletariat, in Marx's case) did not
Marx believed that the only changes in this power structure would occur throughREVOLUTION
the group in control, or the thesis

the antithesis, or the group that wants social change and does not have power

revolution; stems from social tension



the synthesis - a combination between the thesis and the antithesis.



COMMUNISM: a utopian society based on equality between individuals with all having equal access to the means of production. + = Poverty and squalor - Blue Gate Fields, 1872. Taken from London: A Pilgrimage by Blanchard Jerrold and Gustave Doré. An attic occupied by a family of ten in Bethnal Green, London – an illustration from 1863. DEVELOPMENTS OF POLITICAL THOUGHT ORIGINS OF SOCIALISM
Driving Question: Is universal suffrage enough to give meaning to the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity?

population growth; impact of industrial revolution; growing disparity between rich and poor = signs that we need more than democracy for geniuine liberation
Utopian Socialist

Count Henri de Saint-Simon
French aristocrat
doubted that changes in contituions - even universal suffrage - would make dthe difference in the material and spiritual well-being of the ENTIRE population
PROBLEM: How to make sure that wealth is not possessed by few but serves the needs of everyone
SOLUTION: technological innovation and shrude social planning "From each according to his ability, to each according to his work." Robert Owen
English cotton manufacturer
shared Saint-Simon's belief in the potential of industrial technology to change society
PROBLEM: Unrestrained industrial capitalism; emphasis on individualism and competition + maximization of profits through low wages for labour = destruction of the social fabric
SOLUTION:Model communities (i.e. New Lanark 1800-1825) and education which would lead to gradual reform of society

"What ideas individuals may attach to the term "Millennium" I know not; but I know that society may be formed so as to exist without crime, without poverty, with health greatly improved, with little, if any misery, and with intelligence and happiness increased a hundredfold; and no obstacle whatsoever intervenes at this moment except ignorance to prevent such a state of society from becoming universal.”Extract from Robert Owen’s "Address to the Inhabitants of New Lanark"New Year’s Day, 1816 utopian socialists utopian socialits Pierre-Joseph Proudhon French radical; source of violence?
governments were responsible for violence, not individuals
the state through laws and police make humans live in unnatural conditions of inequality and opression
greatest opression = property ownership
"All property is theft"; once we do away with ownership we come closer to social equality
FREDRICH ENGELS (1820-1895) German political philosopher, social scientist His father was a shareholder in a textile company in Manchester, England called Ermen & Engels
First hand observation of the poor working conditions in factories
Wrote book, "The Conditions of the Working Class in England in 1844"
1845 moved to Brussels, became a member of the Communist League

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