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The Breakup of Yugoslavia

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Sydney Nemeroff

on 31 March 2014

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Transcript of The Breakup of Yugoslavia

The Disintegration of Yugoslavia Post Communism
Yugoslavia Under Tito
The 1980s
Without Tito, the state began to unravel.
Internal Factors
Power moves from the federal government to republics.
Various ethnic interests, inefficient economy, structural inability to maintain unity.
External Factors
The collapse of communism(1989), unification of Germany(1990), collapse of the Soviet Union(1991)
Bring nationalist parties to power.
West attention moves to other Eastern European countries.
Conflict Begins
June 25, 1991: Slovenia and Croatia announce independence.
Slovenia:
Yugoslavian army troops (JNA) attempt to seize control, but withdrew after 10 days.
Confirms Slovenia's separation.
Conclusion
Lack of ability to create nations based on the principal of self determination provides a challenge to the American ideal world order.
Background
Yugoslavia
: created at the end of WWI.
1941: taken over by Nazi forces, who created the oppressive Croat state.
The Partisans, led by Josip Broz (Tito) helped defeat the Germans and establish control over the other resistance groups.
Established a communist government based on the Soviet Union.
Federation of six republics (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina).
Denounced Stalin and broke away from the Soviet sphere of influence in 1948.
1950-60s: Period of relative stability.
In 1974, Tito was named president for life.
Died May 4, 1980.
Major question of Yugoslavia's survival without Tito.
Slobodan Milosevic And Greater Serbia



Nationalism as the replacement for communism.
Took advantage of the weak central state and conflicts within other republics.
1989: abolished Kosovo's autonomy
Greater Serbia: want to unite all of the Serbs into a position of power, although 25% lived outside of Serbia.
Croatia
Serb minority declares independence.
JNA intervenes, fighting increases, and war ensues.
Devastating results: ten thousands dead and hundred thousands displaced.
The U.N. sends former S.O.S. Cyrus Vance to establish cease fire and negotiations.
January 1992- a peace treaty is signed.
U.N. troops sent to monitor.
Both countries internally recognized in Jan 1992, and joined the EU in May.
The War in Bosnia
April 1992-October 1995
Independent gov too weak to contain tensions between the Bosnian-Muslims, Croats, and Serbs.
Serbs and Croats declared their regions of the country to be autonomous.
Croats and Serbs expanded territorial control at the expense of the Bosnian state.
the Serbs were supported by Serbia and the JNA.
Controlled 70% of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Each time there was a shift in territorial control, there was more rampant ethnic cleansing.
Experienced extremely gruesome fighting and violence.
Continuing Disinigration
Macedonia
September 8, 1991: declares independence
Serbia and Montenegro
April 17, 1992: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Bosina-Herzegovina
Originally reluctant to see the disintegration of Yugoslavia.
April 1992: internationally recognized as independent.
However, this action took 1.3 million Serbs out out Yugoslavia against their will.
Initial Western Involvement
Bush and Clinton reluctant to become involved.
Contain the crisis
Provide humanitarian relief to Muslims through the UN.
Avoid becoming entangled in a prolonged military conflict.
Dayton Peace Accords (1995)
Signed in Paris on December 14, 1995
The Clinton administration decides to take decisive steps to end the war.
Goals: reintegration of Bosnia and protection of human rights.
Created the Bosnian Serb Republic and the Muslim(Bosnjak)-Croat Federation.
11 Annexes
United Nations Security Council
Kosovo (1998)
Last major outbreak of warfare caused by breakup of Yugoslavia.
Ethnic Albanians rebel against Serbian rule.
March 1999: Clinton and NATO leaders launch air strikes against Serb military in Kosovo and against the Milosevic government.
Forced Milosevic to accept a NATO peace keeping force.
U.N. administrative mandate.
Full transcript