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Chapter 24: World War II - Section 1: Dictators Threaten Peace

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Joseph Sahd

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 24: World War II - Section 1: Dictators Threaten Peace

Chapter 24: World War Looms
Setting the Stage: In the summer of 1939, President FDR addressed the U.S.A about atrocities in Europe committed by Hitler’s Nazi Germany. FDR declares U.S. “will remain a neutral nation”.

o Why would the U.S. try to stay neutral?

Section 1: Dictators Threaten World Peace
Main Idea: The rise of rulers with total power in Europe and Asia led to WWII

Why It Matters Today: Dictators of the 1930s & 1940s changed the course of history, making world leaders especially
watchful for the actions of dictators today

• Martha Gellhorn: One of 1st women war correspondents
o Began her career during the Spanish Civil War
• Seeds of new conflicts had been sown in World War I
o Peace brought revolutions fueled by economic depression
o Postwar years brought the rise of powerful dictators driven by strong nationalistic beliefs and dreams of territorial expansion

• Failures of The World War I Peace Settlement
o Treaty of Versailles didn’t result in lasting peace

• Germany’s Weimar Republic (democratic gov.) was unable to repair country
after WWI

• Soviets were mad they lost so much land after WWI
o Many new democracies in Europe collapsed and were replaced by dictators
o Even staunch democratic countries struggled to “hang on”
Nationalism in Europe & Asia
o Bolshevik Revolution turned Russia into a communist dictatorship
• 1922: Called Soviet Union
o 1924: V.I. Lenin died

• Joseph Stalin (“man of steel”) vs. Leon Trotsky
o Stalin ended up taking control
• Focused on building a modern communist state
• Made agricultural & industrial growth prime goals
• Replaced privately owned farms with collectives,
large government-owned farms (hundreds of families to a farm)
Joseph Stalin Transforms Soviet Union
•1928: Unveiled his first of several “five-year plans” that would help
turn the Soviet Union into a great industrial power

•By 1937: Soviet Union was world’s 2nd largest industrial power
(1st was U.S.)

•Cost: Human lives

•Stalin was responsible for killing 8-13 million people
o Millions more died from famines
o By 1939: Stalin had established a totalitarian government

• Totalitarian: Gov. tried to exert complete & total control over citizens
•Citizens had no rights
Stalin's Five-Year Plans
Rise of Fascism in Italy
o Unemployment & inflation caused anger in Italy
• Middle and Upper classes called for stronger leadership

o Benito Mussolini established a totalitarian regime in Italy• He played on fears of economic collapse and communism

o 1921: Mussolini established the Fascist Party
• Fascism: Stressed nationalism & placed the interests of the
state above individuals
• Stated power must rest with a single strong leader & a small group of devoted party members

o October 1922: Mussolini and his “Black Shirt” followers marched on Rome
• Italian king appointed Mussolini head of the government

o Mussolini’s title: “Il Duce” – “The Leader”
• He achieved efficiency by crushing all opposition & making Italy a totalitarian state
Nazis Gain Control on Germany
o In Germany, Adolf Hitler followed a similar path as Mussolini

o 1919: Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party)

o Hitler’s title: “Der Fuehrer” – “The Leader”

• Wrote Mein Kampf
• Outlined plan of action for Nazi Party
• Nazism was based on extreme nationalism

o Goals of Nazism:
• 1. Unite all German speaking people into one untied
German empire
• 2. Achieve racial “purification”
• Ayrans – “maser race”
• 3. Achieve national expansion
• Lebensraum – “living space”
o Great Depression helped the Nazis come to power
• 1932: 6 million Germans were unemployed
• Unemployed men joined Hitler’s private army called storm troopers, or “Brown Shirts”

o Mid 1932: Nazis became strongest political party in Germany

o January 1933: Hitler was appointed chancellor (prime minister)
• Hitler dismissed the Weimar Republic
• Established the Third Reich (Third German Empire)
• Hitler predicted it would last 1,000 years
Militarists Gain Control of Japan
o 1931: Militarist leaders in Japan took over the Chinese province
of Manchuria
• This area rich in resources was ruled by Japan

o The League of Nations condemned Japan’s actions• Japan simply left the League of Nations
• Militarists firmly took over Japan’s government
Aggressions in Africa & Europe
• 1933: Hitler pulled Germany out of the League

• 1935: Hitler began military buildup of Germany

• 1936: Hitler sent troops into demilitarized Rhineland
o Mussolini set out to build new Italian empire
• Invaded Ethiopia
• One of Africa’s few remaining independent countries
• May 1936: Italy defeated Ethiopia

o The League of Nations did nothing substantial to either Hitler or Mussolini
Spanish Civil War
o1936: Group of Spanish army officers led by General Francisco Franco rebelled against the Spanish republic
• Spanish Civil War had begun

o Other nations around the world get involved
• Example: American sent 3,000 troops in the Abraham Lincoln Battalion
• Wanted to stop spread of fascism

o However, Hitler and Mussolini offered significantly more support than did the Western democracies
• Example: Troops, weapons, tanks, fighter planes, etc

o 1939: Franco’s victory established him as Spain’s fascist dictator
• Hitler and Franco signed a formal alliance known as the Rome-Berlin Axis
U.S. Responds Cautiously
• Most Americans were concerned about the international conflicts of the mid-1930s but believed the U.S. shouldn’t get involved
o 1928: U.S. signed the Kellogg-Brand Pact

• 62 countries signed agreement that outlawed war

• However, it basically meant nothing b/c there was no method of enforcing it
o Early 1930s: Growing movement in America that said U.S. was drug into
WWI by greedy bankers and arms dealers

• Congressional Committee, chaired by North Dakota Senator Gerald Nye, to hold hearings on these charges

• Public resentment grew over these “merchants of death”

• Girl Scouts of America changed their colors from khaki to green to appear less militaristic

o 1933: Officially recognized the Soviet Union & exchanged ambassadors

o Continued policy of nonintervention in Latin America that Coolidge & Hoover began

• Good Neighbor Policy
o 1934: Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act

• Lowered trade barriers by allowing the President power to make trade agreements with other countries aimed at reducing tariffs by as much as 50%
o 1935: Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts
• Goal: Keep U.S. out of future wars
• 1st & 2nd acts outlawed arms sales or loans to warring nations
• 3rd act extended outlawing arms sales or loans to nations in civil wars
FDR's Foreign Policy
• Americans Cling To Isolationism
o Despite congressional efforts to legislate neutrality, FDR found it impossible to remain neutral

•Neutrality Breaks Down
o1937: FDR delivered a speech against isolationism in Chicago

•FDR backed off due to strong protest from isolationist newspapers
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