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HSCI 120 Infectious Disease (Chapter 13)

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Jacob VanderKam

on 27 November 2014

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Transcript of HSCI 120 Infectious Disease (Chapter 13)

Practice the
A
B
C
D
s of STD prevention
Support immune system by adopting healthy lifestyle
Prevention
&
Treatment
of Infectious Diseases

Strongly recommended for anyone who has engaged in or has a partner who has:


Injected drugs, including steroids
Unprotected sex (vaginal, anal, or oral)
Multiple partners or has exchanged sex for drugs or money
Diagnosed with an STD

Tests include:
Enzyme immune assay (EIA)
Western blot test
Home Access HIV-1 Test System (home test kit)
HIV Testing
Most are asymptomatic or can remain symptom-free for years, even though antibodies have been formed within weeks of infection.
HIV/AIDS
Sexually transmitted disease (STD): infection spread predominantly through sexual contact
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Four leading causes of global infectious disease mortality:
Global Infectious Diseases
Antibiotic:
chemical that works by killing or preventing bacteria growth.
Antibiotic Resistance

Travel
SARS outbreak of 2003 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)

Sexual behavior

Sexually transmitted diseases

Illicit drug use
Use of contaminated needles and syringes

Body art
Insertion of needles breaks down the body’s protective skin barrier, and equipment and dyes can be contaminated

Behavior-Related Changes

Lymphocytes:
white blood cells that circulate in the bloodstream and lymphatic system
Acquired Immune System

Innate immune system:
part of the immune system designed to rapidly dispose of pathogens in a nonspecific manner.
The Immune System
Skin:
body’s first line of defense
External Barriers
Infectious Disease
Chapter 13
Chlamydia*
Gonorrhea*
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Syphilis*
Bacterial vaginosis
Human papillomavirus
Genital herpes
Hepatitis
Trichomoniasis
Candidiasis
Pubic lice and scabies
Other STDs
Disproportionate Risk for
HIV Infection

Antiretroviral agents:
don't cure infection, but slow rate of replication and destruction. (prolong & improve quality of life)
Management of HIV/AIDS

Cause:
HIV virus attacks the helper T cells (CD4) and macrophages of the immune system
HIV/AIDS

Pertussis (Whooping Cough):
infection of the respiratory tract that is highly contagious.
Infectious Diseases on Campus
Vaccination Controversies

Reducing Antibiotic Resistance

Widespread distribution of food:
Decreases the nutrient value of food
Increases risk of contaminated causing infectious disease
250+ organisms associated with food-related illnesses
Viruses
Bacteria
Prions
Parasites

Food Production & Distribution Changes

Recommended Adult Immunizations

B and T cells become memory cells when exposed to an infectious agent.
Immunization
Neutrophils and macrophages:
white blood cells that travel to areas of infection or tissue damage and digest damaged cells, foreign particles, and bacteria
Innate Immune System
The Chain of Infection
Infection:
People Living with HIV in 2010

Death Rate from Infectious Diseases, United States

Physical and Chemical Barriers

Stages of Infection

Age
Uncontrollable

Eating a balanced diet
Controllable
Risk Factors for Infection
Disease or condition caused by a
microorganism.
Vagina is slightly acidic:
discouraging the growth of abnormal bacteria
Bile & enzymes:
Break down pathogens in mall intestines.
Stomach acids:
Inhospitable PH for
most
organisms.
Saliva:
Contains special proteins that break down bacteria.
Cough reflex and cilia:
Moves pathogen up & out.
Hair:
Protects nasal passages and ear canals.
Acquired immune system:
part of the immune system that recognizes specific targets.
Natural killer cells:
white blood cells that recognize and destroy virus-infected cells or those that have become cancerous
B cells:
monitor the blood and tissue fluids. When they encounter a specific antigen, they mature and produce antibodies: proteins that bind to specific antigens and trigger their destruction
Suppressor T cells
slow down and halt the immune response when the threat has been handled
Killer T cells
attack and kill foreign cells and infected body cells
Helper T cells
“read” cells’ infection messages and trigger production of killer T cells and B cells
T cells:
type of lymphocyte that monitor events
Protects society by shrinking the reservoir of infectious agents
Protects you by stimulating an immune response
Vaccine:
a preparation of weakened or killed microorganisms administered to confer immunity to various diseases
Receiving vaccinations, when available
Getting enough sleep
Managing stress properly
Exercising
Poverty
Overcrowded living conditions
Sociocultural issues
Genetic predispositions
Having chronic diseases
Undergoing surgical procedures
Changes affect disease transmission
Behavior patterns can have an affect on disease transmission
Antibiotic resistance:

lessened sensitivity to the effects of an antibiotic.

Two factors are believed to account for resistance:
Frequency with which resistant genes arise naturally among bacteria through mutation
Extent of antibiotic use
Dr. Andrew Wakefield:
MMR Vaccine
Autism
BANNED
Jenny McCarthy
Malaria:

mosquito-borne disease that caused 655,000 deaths in 2010
Tuberculosis:
world’s most common infectious disease
Diarrhea:
kills about 1.5 million children/year
Pneumonia:
infection of lungs or lower respiratory tract
viral or bacterial
Urinary tract infections:
most common bacterial infection in women.
Staphylococcus aureus skin infections:
infection from a common bacterium carried on the skin or in the noses of healthy people.
Primary pathogens:
viruses & bacteria
sexually transmitted infection (STI)
Methods of transmission:
Perinatal transmission (mother to fetus)
Through infected blood products
Sharing of hypodermic needles
Direct contact involving the exchange of
bodily fluids
(blood, semen, vaginal secretions)
Eventually the following symptoms may appear:
Rapid weight loss
Cough
Night sweats
Diarrhea
Rashes or skin blemishes
Memory loss
New prevention possibilities:

Vaccine trails are under way.
Drug cocktails:
complicated drug combinations that combat the development of resistant viral strains.
Complexity, cost, and risk of side effects increase.
*Table 13.2 (pg 310)
Minimize use of antibiotics
Follow good hygiene, stay home from work, avoid crowds
Be proactive when exposed to infectious disease
Vaccinate
Eat balanced diet, exercise, sleep, manage stress, and don't smoke
Participate in efforts to reduce likelihood of infectious diseases in your community
Learn about common infectious diseases when traveling (particularly high-risk area)
Detection
Condoms
Be faithful
For this Quarter:
Take action to keep yourself infection free.
For next class
Read chapter 7
Body Weight & Composition
Prepare extra credit presentations
Only 4 more classes until M1
Charades
Pictionary
(yeasts & molds)
immune
memory
cell
eaters
Abstinence
(polio)
mucus membranes, wounds, etc.
Full transcript