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HSCI 120 Infectious Disease (Chapter 13)
Transcript of HSCI 120 Infectious Disease (Chapter 13)
s of STD prevention
Support immune system by adopting healthy lifestyle
of Infectious Diseases
Strongly recommended for anyone who has engaged in or has a partner who has:
Injected drugs, including steroids
Unprotected sex (vaginal, anal, or oral)
Multiple partners or has exchanged sex for drugs or money
Diagnosed with an STD
Enzyme immune assay (EIA)
Western blot test
Home Access HIV-1 Test System (home test kit)
Most are asymptomatic or can remain symptom-free for years, even though antibodies have been formed within weeks of infection.
Sexually transmitted disease (STD): infection spread predominantly through sexual contact
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Four leading causes of global infectious disease mortality:
Global Infectious Diseases
chemical that works by killing or preventing bacteria growth.
SARS outbreak of 2003 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
Sexually transmitted diseases
Illicit drug use
Use of contaminated needles and syringes
Insertion of needles breaks down the body’s protective skin barrier, and equipment and dyes can be contaminated
white blood cells that circulate in the bloodstream and lymphatic system
Acquired Immune System
Innate immune system:
part of the immune system designed to rapidly dispose of pathogens in a nonspecific manner.
The Immune System
body’s first line of defense
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pubic lice and scabies
Disproportionate Risk for
don't cure infection, but slow rate of replication and destruction. (prolong & improve quality of life)
Management of HIV/AIDS
HIV virus attacks the helper T cells (CD4) and macrophages of the immune system
Pertussis (Whooping Cough):
infection of the respiratory tract that is highly contagious.
Infectious Diseases on Campus
Reducing Antibiotic Resistance
Widespread distribution of food:
Decreases the nutrient value of food
Increases risk of contaminated causing infectious disease
250+ organisms associated with food-related illnesses
Food Production & Distribution Changes
Recommended Adult Immunizations
B and T cells become memory cells when exposed to an infectious agent.
Neutrophils and macrophages:
white blood cells that travel to areas of infection or tissue damage and digest damaged cells, foreign particles, and bacteria
Innate Immune System
The Chain of Infection
People Living with HIV in 2010
Death Rate from Infectious Diseases, United States
Physical and Chemical Barriers
Stages of Infection
Eating a balanced diet
Risk Factors for Infection
Disease or condition caused by a
Vagina is slightly acidic:
discouraging the growth of abnormal bacteria
Bile & enzymes:
Break down pathogens in mall intestines.
Inhospitable PH for
Contains special proteins that break down bacteria.
Cough reflex and cilia:
Moves pathogen up & out.
Protects nasal passages and ear canals.
Acquired immune system:
part of the immune system that recognizes specific targets.
Natural killer cells:
white blood cells that recognize and destroy virus-infected cells or those that have become cancerous
monitor the blood and tissue fluids. When they encounter a specific antigen, they mature and produce antibodies: proteins that bind to specific antigens and trigger their destruction
Suppressor T cells
slow down and halt the immune response when the threat has been handled
Killer T cells
attack and kill foreign cells and infected body cells
Helper T cells
“read” cells’ infection messages and trigger production of killer T cells and B cells
type of lymphocyte that monitor events
Protects society by shrinking the reservoir of infectious agents
Protects you by stimulating an immune response
a preparation of weakened or killed microorganisms administered to confer immunity to various diseases
Receiving vaccinations, when available
Getting enough sleep
Managing stress properly
Overcrowded living conditions
Having chronic diseases
Undergoing surgical procedures
Changes affect disease transmission
Behavior patterns can have an affect on disease transmission
lessened sensitivity to the effects of an antibiotic.
Two factors are believed to account for resistance:
Frequency with which resistant genes arise naturally among bacteria through mutation
Extent of antibiotic use
Dr. Andrew Wakefield:
mosquito-borne disease that caused 655,000 deaths in 2010
world’s most common infectious disease
kills about 1.5 million children/year
infection of lungs or lower respiratory tract
viral or bacterial
Urinary tract infections:
most common bacterial infection in women.
Staphylococcus aureus skin infections:
infection from a common bacterium carried on the skin or in the noses of healthy people.
viruses & bacteria
sexually transmitted infection (STI)
Methods of transmission:
Perinatal transmission (mother to fetus)
Through infected blood products
Sharing of hypodermic needles
Direct contact involving the exchange of
(blood, semen, vaginal secretions)
Eventually the following symptoms may appear:
Rapid weight loss
Rashes or skin blemishes
New prevention possibilities:
Vaccine trails are under way.
complicated drug combinations that combat the development of resistant viral strains.
Complexity, cost, and risk of side effects increase.
*Table 13.2 (pg 310)
Minimize use of antibiotics
Follow good hygiene, stay home from work, avoid crowds
Be proactive when exposed to infectious disease
Eat balanced diet, exercise, sleep, manage stress, and don't smoke
Participate in efforts to reduce likelihood of infectious diseases in your community
Learn about common infectious diseases when traveling (particularly high-risk area)
For this Quarter:
Take action to keep yourself infection free.
For next class
Read chapter 7
Body Weight & Composition
Prepare extra credit presentations
Only 4 more classes until M1
(yeasts & molds)
mucus membranes, wounds, etc.