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The 'bit in the middle'

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by

Harvey Buckle

on 20 May 2016

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Transcript of The 'bit in the middle'

The 'bit in the middle'
Aim
To know the ABILITIES of the transition elements
To know the PROPERTIES of the transition elements
Now
Write the electronic configurations of the first row transition elements....anything odd?

Describe
Complex formation
We will consider coper as an example
So it looks like this..
This is a simple example of the formation of a complex ion with a negative charge.

Copper has the electronic structure

1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1

When it forms a Cu2+ ion it loses the 4s electron and one of the 3d electrons to leave

1s22s22p63s23p63d9

To bond the four chloride ions as ligands, the empty 4s and 4p orbitals are used (in a hybridised form) to accept a lone pair of electrons from each chloride ion. Because chloride ions are bigger than water molecules, you can't fit 6 of them around the central ion - that's why you only use 4.
Starter
What is electronegativity?
Explain it to the person to your left and write down what THEY say about it
Transition metals
The transition elements have:
1. Incomplete d orbitals
2. Coloured compounds
3. Magnetic properies
4. Catalytic properties
5. Variable Oxidation state
6. Complex forming ability

What is a complex ion?


A complex ion has a metal ion at its centre with a number of other molecules or ions surrounding it. These can be considered to be attached to the central ion by co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonds.

The molecules or ions surrounding the central metal ion are called ligands.
Ligands?
Simple ligands include water, ammonia and chloride ions.

What all these have got in common is active lone pairs of electrons in the outer energy level. These are used to form co-ordinate bonds with the metal ion.

All ligands are lone pair donors. In other words, all ligands function as Lewis bases.
In the end...
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