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The Future of Emerging Technologies: Trends in Library Systems and Discovery Tools"

Wesleyan University Systems/Emerging Technologies Librarian Job Talk December 14, 2010

Lori Stethers

on 11 January 2011

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Transcript of The Future of Emerging Technologies: Trends in Library Systems and Discovery Tools"

Emerging Technologies Format changes Geo-everything Mobile Search Keeping up core competencies tech ability a requirement at all levels Pew
Horizon Report
Journals (for long-term analysis)
Common craft
PLAY / EXPERIMENTATION Adoption involves risks and uncertainty
is innovation valued at your org?

adopt early when cost of implementation and failure is low
adopt later when costs are high
ask WHY - what is the purpose? Generational bias Don't let it get in the way of:
evaluating products
providing services

Must be willing and comfortable meeting students on their turf:
social networking
collaboration tools
not necessarily face to face Traits of Millenials vs. Traits of other Generations Cloud Computing Google Apps
OCLC Web Scale Management Services
Amazon EC2 Cost-sharing
Shared Infrastructure
Reduced local maintenance
Reduced local control "Always available"
"Always on" web sites
subscription databases?
ebook readers (ebooks are 3rd most popular iphone download after games and entertainment apps)
smartphone applications (medicine, quick reference)
QR codes (recognition problem?)
"green" conscience locating physical items
room reservations
eventual replacement for library PCs
impact on use of library computers?

"bring your own" In-library use want to use their existing tools to meet demands of college life

"Key findings: The overwhelming preference [among researchers] is for mainstream anchor technologies--libraries and publishers need to adapt to the winning technologies."
(Charleston Observatory research) To which generation do you belong? 1. Millenial (born 1980-1999)
2. Gen X (born 1965-1980)
3. Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964)
4. Traditionalists (1900-1945) digitally connected, “always on”
receptive to change
organizationally and team-oriented / work well with others
maintain close contact w/ friends via technology
trust authority / respectful
meaningful work and constant feedback on performance
achievement-oriented / pressured to succeed / afraid to fail
confident / upbeat / self-expressive Gen X (born 1965-1980) - cynical, self-sufficient, believe loyalty has to be earned, those in authority must earn their trust

Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964) - require recognition from higher-ups, expect to succeed in the workplace through loyalty and hard work

Traditionalists (born 1900-1945) - highly dedicated, respect traditional chain of command, believe they must constantly prove themselves to those in command Boomers and traditionalists develop knowledge through structured, formal means. Younger gens learn in informal, non-heirarchical ways. Emerging Academic Tech : immediate feedback testing tool
IF-AT cards: http://epsteineducation.com/home/about/default.aspx The library org - supporting emerging technologies It must be okay to experiment
sometimes negative connotation of "playing" when experimenting with new technologies.
play = creativity
play = experimentation
play = discovery
Encourage play! Do you work in an evironment where it's okay to fail?

These words are our friends :)

If it's not okay to fail, experimentation and creativity are hampered. Exactly WHEN am I supposed to try out all these new things? You don't have to try them all
Information sharing - you aren't responsible for it all, but share what you learn and learn from others (google reader, wikis, delicious, other social networking tools, and old-fashioned water cooler chat)
What can we stop doing / automate / do less of to allow our staff to:
move on to bigger things?
get involved in the broader community / connect with students and other campus partners?
have time to experiment and create?
Workflow analysis - what can we do more efficiently? what can we automate?

Library staffing and infrastructure for the physical/print-based model
re-imagine and re-work for digital environment
utilize vendors/outsourcing when they can do better / more efficiently
consolidation and cooperation with other libraries - reduce duplication of work
let go of perfection - users are used to "good enough"
Historically, much time and effort spent:
cataloging for access
managing the physical collection Citations Where do we want to go?
What's going on around us?
How can we utilize emerging technologies to achieve our mission? Library as technology incubator
(NCSU example) Perpetual beta cycle Radical change in software development cycles

Develop -> Test -> Roll out -> Feedback/Assess -> Develop ->

Product never "finished" Data Visualization Assessment Open Source Not new or emerging, but...
wider acceptance by libraries
more options
more complete solutions
availability of reliable, paid support Decisions What does the future of this product look like? Who is behind it? Is there a path for continued development?
Does it fit the technology model of your institution?
Does it do what you want?
Do you want to pay your development staff or a vendor's?
Do you have more staff time or more money? It's always been abou the content, not the container.
Preferred container is changing, but the preferred content is still driven by teaching (or research.)
The changing container just complicates things :) Ebooks Print Books Emotional
Centuries to evolve to today's container. E-readers Love/hate

Still evolving - long way to go to replicate the utility of the print book
However... the people who own e-readers do 70% of their reading digitally.
Proliferating (now Google) - we're waiting for shake-out
Library doesn't have much say in this - consumer-driven market What would you do if you were building a library from scratch in today's world? currently best for short-duration tasks
but that is changing quickly!

Google now targets mobile platforms FIRST in development!

study shows: providing materials on mobile platform increases the time students spend with materials Open Content currently reputation and citation issues
gaining ground
open textbooks
open courseware
open journals
enables "re-mixed", customized course materials Augmented Reality Gesture-based computing already in use: smartmouse, touch screens, iphone/ipad, Xbox Kinect
already common for self-serve models
Perceptive Pixel multi-touch screen - NCSU What do users need to ID whether they have found what they need?
Are we giving it to them? Cervone, H. Frank; "Emerging technology, innovation, and the digital library"; OCLC Systems & Services; Vol. 26, No. 4, 2010.

Chesser, William; "The Future of eTextbooks - The Smarter Learning Approach"; http://www.slideshare.net/CharlestonConference/the-future-of-etextbooks-the-smarter-learning-approach-by-william-chesser-ingram-content-group

CLIR; "The Idea of Order: Transforming Research Collections for 21st Century Scholarship"; June 2010; http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub147abst.html

Elsevier; Library Connect Newsletter; Vol 7, No. 4 (November 2009).

Keogh, Patricia and Zhonghong Wang; "Clickers in instruction: one campus, multiple perspectives," Library Hi Tech, Volume 28, Number 1, 2010.

Malpas, Constance; "Observations on the Future Nature of Library Collecting"; (slides from talk given Oct 20, 2010); http://www.oclc.org/research/presentations/malpas/librariesaustralia2010.pptx

Machovec, George; "A Comparative Overview of Journal Discovery Systems"; (slides from talk given Nov 3, 2010); http://www.slideshare.net/CharlestonConference/charleston-overviewpreconf2010

McQuivey, James; "eBooks Ready to Climb Past $1 Billion"; (Forrester Research blog post); http://blogs.forrester.com/james_mcquivey/10-11-08-ebooks_ready_to_climb_past_1_billion

Michalko, James; "Latest Trends in US Libraries and OCLC in the Digital Environment"; (slides from talk given Oct 8, 2010); http://www.oclc.org/research/presentations/michalko/ndl2010.pptx

New Media Consortium; 2010 Horizon Report; http://wp.nmc.org/horizon2010/

Nicholas, David; Ian Rowlands and Deanna Wamae; "Charleston Conference Observatory: Are Social Media Impacting on Research?"; http://www.slideshare.net/CharlestonConference/charleston-conference-observatory-are-social-media-impacting-on-research

Wesleyan University; Wesleyan University Library Mission Statement; http://frontpage.wesleyan.edu/libr/about/mission.html changes the support model Serials format migration to digital nearly complete
result: move to off-site storage, collaborative/cooperative storage
result: weeding - space freed
next change: moving from issue-based publication to article-based

IF books move to digital at the same rate... A game-changer! ...then in 2015, 70% of our monograph budgets will be spent on e-books What portion of the monograph budget do you think WUL will be spending on ebooks 5 years from now? 1. 10% 6. 60%
2. 20% 7. 70%
3. 30% 8. 80%
4. 40% 9. 90%
5. 50% 10. 100% Opportunities we've reached a tipping point - soon to be rapid switch from print to digital
mass digitization of legacy collections (Google Books, HathiTrust)
digitization of local special collections This format change allows us to:
move overlap of print / digital to storage
store cooperatively with other institutions
"retire" legacy materials (think JSTOR)
share resources (cooperative e- purchasing)
outsource (vendor-stored ebooks)
change management of the remaining (small) print collection Cost per year for housing a single print book:
$0.86 per year in high-density storage
$4.26 per book in open stacks

How much time - and therefore $ - do you devote to stacks management? circulation? intake of physical items?

(Estimates from CLIR Report, June 2010) Cost per year for housing a single digital book (outsourced):
$0.15 per year for black & white, with one redundant site
$0.40 per year for color, with 2 redundant sites May result in pressure for libraries to consolidate

(if everything is e-, why does it matter where we are located?) What IS the library under this scenario? (this sounds fast, but maintaining dual formats is expensive for everyone, so there will be pressure from many sides to move to e-) parallels:
how many people said "I would never read my newspaper online. It's not the same."
and how is the newspaper business doing now......... ?
Netflix - very rapidly moved from being a DVD lender to primarily a streamed video provider
music - digital is now the primary sales device, with the CD an "add-on" Today's technology is consumer-driven.
We can't pick and choose which to support anymore.
Consumers want their information resources delivered the same way as their entertainment resources
-> free and easy
-> with lots of rules or hurdles
-> if it's not, there are other places they can go
-> want to use the devices they already have
-> self-service This challenges the traditional library org structure, process, and staffing model
slow vs. quick
controlled vs. less or un controlled
in person vs. multitude of interaction type but we can build on our traditional values and ideals while creating new roles and redefining how we provide service new roles:
technology incubator
source of info for faculty on emerging publishing models
we know about: sustainabililty, preservation, copyright, format choices Everyone can be a publisher web page
self-publishing book and e-book presses
metadata sources and quality? Artificial Intelligence Conversation agents
Decision-making agents Screencast/Videocast/Podcast Offload repetitious "how to" teaching to recordings
-> less time teaching the tools, more time teaching concepts
Available for review by students at time of need Are our services and facilities supporting the


as well as they could be? Changes in tools, learning styles, generational traits...
drive changes in our facilities -> Shazam
-> image matching
-> predictive results
-> answer machines (Wolfram Alpha)
this isn't happening in the library yet... is it? removing silos interactivity interactive signage
touchscreen displays
self-serve kiosks
applications that provide feedback
->faceted searches that tell you how many results per facet
-> predictive search results (Google Instant) Libraries often slow to adopt
(various reasons - $$, not a big consumer like retail business, slow moving orgs)
So caution: "emerging" to us does not always mean new technology.
(examples from past: faceted search. RFID.) Set objective criteria to evaluate
And then... evaluate! -> prezi for this presentation (aha moment!) clickers "have gained acceptance... potential to increase instructional effectiveness, such recognition has yet to be widely reflected by librarians" Discovery Interfaces 1.OPAC interface replacements - "Next Generation Catalogs"
VuFind, Blacklight, XCat, Endeca, Aquabrowser, Encore, Worldcat Local

2. Meta-search tools - "Web-scale Discovery"
everything in one index
Summon, EBSCO Discovery, Primo, Encore, Worldcat Local, Google Scholar

The line between them is blurry. But currently the tools can't do both well.
(IMO) Purpose
provide a common search interface across databases
not require students to figure out which databases to search
permit search of multiple databases simultaneously
-> permit focus on the research skills, rather than the tools ILS Legacy data storage; not where we, or vendors, are spending money
Cash cow for vendors.
With cash cows, you tweak but not spend a lot of money marketing or developing them
- open source offerings - community-developed
- cloud services - OCLC Web-scale management services
--> note that this also out-sources/crowd-sources record management Yahoo Clues - a tool we can learn from, and someone else has already done the work for us!
Searcher behaviour:
-> most common previous/next searches
-> demographics
-> compare searches Common craft introduction: http://commoncraft.com/augmented-reality-video Patron-Driven Acquisition Acquiring for "I know I need" rather than "just in case."

This isn't new, we've always done it at some level
Now technology is enabling us to do it on a broader level, for print and e-.

Tech allows policies can be built in to the system (pre-mediated)

We have much better ability to see stats on what actually gets used.

(In the aggregate academic collection - 80% of the circulation is accounted for by 12.9% of the materials - from OCLC research) E-resources Allow us to get much more and more specific information about use than w/ print.

How can we use this to inform
Collection development?
Budgeting? Set goals before evaluating products
What is our purpose? Why are we looking at this?
What do we hope to achieve?
What problem are we solving or service are we adding?
How will we measure success?
How much time and money are we willing to devote to implementation, ongoing maintenance, and support?
--> Do we want it to replace or supplement our existing catalog?

-- this will help us set objective criteria to evaluate products, rather than “I like it”
-- evaluate products before implementing
-- evaluate how it is meeting your goals after implementation
-- tweak & adjust. repeat. federated search We have piles of stats. Who looks at them?
How hard is it to make sense of them?

Can allow us to explore:
collection development
subscribed and purchased materials use
facility use
search behavior

more simply and in new ways
identify patterns
helps our data tell a story. New visualization tools:
http://code.google.com/apis/chart/ OPAC keyword search terms:http://www.daveyp.com/blog/archives/659 4G "High quality of service for next generation multimedia support - real-time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc.

High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology
Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost
Integrated services" *
* wikipedia Semantic Web/Linked Data 3D printing Screenless display Does your library value and reward innovation?
1. Yes
2. No What IS a library catalog today and in the future?
What should it contain?
How should it be searched? Our contribution to institutional goals

Library use correlation to final grades: http://www.daveyp.com/blog/archives/1370 Digitization of legacy collections Hidden collections become discoverable
what does it mean for special collections?
-> collections become more known = physical objects more in demand
-> collection is online = physical objecs less in demand Print-on-Demand Espresso Book Machine
self-service book purchase
ILL alternative
enables digital as primary, print only when ordered
self-publishing/Creative Commons vooks
print companion to online (previously reverse)
changes how we read? less linear, more interactive QR codes "Just in time" acquisition What do we need to provide for their learning and working styles?

What can we learn from them about our own ways of working? Web HTML5 Blurring App/web boundaries
Google OS Building sites from pieces

OCLC citation tool
vendor APIs and web services
.... Instruction how will it be delivered and consumed in the future? Tablet computing iPad and copycats

what can it do for us?

roving reference - anywhere

go to where the students are - reach people that don't know they need a librarian Gradual format changes
distance ed "learn more"
call #/ebook version
help videos with Augmented Reality, potential for special collections work
historical info
campus tours/info
geo-social (foursquare) gaming
emotion-sensing dog
engineering (object modelling) historical (maps, images)
augmented printed books Costs Costs New search types It is substantially cheaper for the library to manage digital than print. NYC 311: http://stephenslighthouse.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/ff_311_newyork_f.jpg Springer's realtime download charts: http://realtime.springer.com/
Dashboard: http://www.libmma.org/dashboard/
Tipping Point Challenges vs. "just-in-case" No-SQL Databases
Full transcript