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Inference Making

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Shannon Haldorson

on 13 January 2015

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Transcript of Inference Making

Inference Making
Article #1
Do preschool teachers consider inferences for book discussions?

31 preschool teachers were examined in this 2 part study.
3 fictional story books were assigned



The role of vocabulary, working memory and inference making ability in reading comprehension in Down Syndrome
13 children and young adults with down syndrome were chosen. (11 years to 19)
3 other grpups made of typically developing children.
Read short stories made for children 7 years of age.
Asked 6 open ended questions after each story.
The study showed that they had more trouble in inference making even though they had a very good comprehension for the story.
Definition
1. The act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true

or

2. Reading between the lines or just looking carefully at the facts and coming to conclusions

Example
: Consider the sentence "She slammed the door shut on her hand."

INFERENCE
= that she may have hurt her finger
Question #1
Question #2
Article #3
Question #3
Question #4
Example #1
What can you infer about this photo? What clues does the photo provide that can help you make a conclusion?
ANSWER: COMBINATION LOCK
Example #2
Inference Generation, Story Comprehension, and Language Skills in the Preschool Years
Part 1
Identify parts of the story that would be difficult for young children to interpret
Results
: teachers did not indicate a need to inference making
Part 2
Construct questions that they would ask 3-5 year olds about these stories during classroom book reading
Questions categorized into none, substantial and in depth
Results
only 25% of questions reflected in depth inferencing.
Conclusion
preschool teachers need to pay more attention to inferences in story book readings and in the questions they ask their students, in order to promote better comprehension
In this study, all teachers had similar educational level and the same amount of teaching experience. Also, all 3 stories chosen by the researchers required inferencing in order to fully understand them, yet most of the teachers idenitfied no need for inferencing.
Therefore, do you think teachers need extra guidance and training in order to lead better story discussions that do reflect inferencing?
What else do you think would help?

Turning frogs into princes: can children make inferences from fairy tales
Purpose
:
are children able to generate inferences from fairy tales, which run contrary to their knowledge of the world
Methods & Materials
: 39, 10 year old, typically developing readers. Asked to complete online task where:
1. read a short passage; from ficitonal or real life
2. sentence (causal or static) pops up; judge if it is true or false

Results:
children responded more accurately and quicker to causal inference sentences rather then static
Responses to both inferences were slower for fairy tale passages

Conclusion
: Children are able to make both causal and static
inferences on real life and fairy tale passsages, however, fairy tale passage responses are slower
1)Why do you believe children were able to respond to causal inferences faster then to static ones?

2)Also, this study was based off of Graesser's (1998) study who found that adults find it difficult to set aside their preconceived ideas and make inferences based on fictional passages.
Why then do you think the children in this study were able to generate inferences even though it challeneged their knowledge of the world, if adults were not able to do so?
Studied the relationship between inference making and story comprehension in 4-5 year olds.
42 children ranging from 46 to 70 months
Used wordless storybooks
Read to them a new story book (Sergio Makes a Splash)
Three major types of inferences were discovered:
Character goals
Actions that achieved those goals
Character states
Do you believe that the children at that age would still have been able to make those inferences if they were simply reading a storybook with no pictures? Why?

Why do you believe that the children and young adults with down syndrome had difficulties with inference making but not with the story comprehension?
Example #3
Example #4
As educators how could we help children with these difficulties?
Full transcript