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Transcript of Imperial China
• Under song emperors, the idea of scholar reached it’s height
• The exams were influenced by a new school of thought known as Neo-Confucianism
• This new teaching blended the teaching of Confucius with elements of Buddhism and Daoism
• During the song dynasty scholar officials performed many tasks
• The scholars arrange ancient manuscripts
• A Neo-Confucian scholar Zhu-Xi selected and commented on Classic Chinese writings
• Confucius taught that people must act properly in five important relationships: ruler and subject, father and son, older sibling and younger sibling, husband and wife, and friend and friend
• Under the song, people from lower classes gained the ability to become scholar officials China Develops a
New Economy Introduction
A time of great prosperity started under the Song dynasty (960-1279 AD).
A boom in agriculture,especially rice, fed trade, commerce & urbanization (The growth of cities).
The Grand Canal linked the Huang He (Yellow River) to the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) and was used by farmers and merchants to ship their crops and goods. Changes in Agriculture
During the Song dynasty, changes in agriculture were a major reason for the growth of China’s economy.
There were several reasons for the changes in Chinese agriculture; The first one was the movement of farmers to the fertile basins in Southern China.
The climate in the North and the South was different; Because of this, the farmers had to grow different crops in the South than what they grew in the North, so they grew rice. The Growth of Trade and Commerce
Trade and commerce had already begun growing during the Tang Dynasty.
One reason is that wealthy landowners wanted luxuries. This caused many traders to go to China to sell their products.
Commerce was also helped by water transportation. A vast network of rivers and canals connected different parts of China. Farmers in central China used barges, a long boat with a flat bottom, to ship their goods by water which was faster than roads. Urbanization
Urbanization increased during Song dynasty and Chinese cities became the largest in the world.
The growth of commerce encouraged people to move to cities and make a living as merchants, traders, peddlers and shopkeepers.
The growth of cities bettered the quality of everyday Chinese lives. chain pump farming harrow rice paddies Grand Canal Chinese Discoveries and Inventions Introduction
Many discoveries & inventions were made during the Tang & Song dynasties.
There were advances in exploration, travel, industry, military technology, everyday objects & disease prevention. Exploration and Travel
Several Chinese inventions made exploration & travel safer & faster
The Chinese developed the first compass as early as 300 B.C.E. They were simply a magnetic mineral called lodestone that was put on a piece of wood floating on water. Eventually, the piece of lodestone was replaced with a steel needle.
The Chinese also improved their boat construction. They figured out how to build a ship with watertight compartments. Each boat was divided into sections that were sealed with caulk, a sealant that keeps out water. If one compartment leaked, the other compartments would stay dry. watertight compartments canal lock Industry
The Chinese invented the papermaking process in the 2nd century.
China was the only culture in the world having this technology at the time. Industry Continued
In the seventh century, the Chinese invented woodblock printing where they carved wooden blocks with characters on them. When they wanted to print something, they were covered in ink and paper was spread over the block. The paper was then smoothed with a brush.
In the 11th century, movable type was invented. Moveable type consisted of separate blocks for each character that could be moved around and used again after one job was done to make a different text altogether. Industry Continued
Porcelain, a hard white pottery (also called china) was first made as early as the first century C.E.
By the 10th century, the Chinese were making beautiful pieces of porcelain.
It soon became a major industry in China Industry Continued
The Chinese first made steel in 200 B.C.E.
The earliest steel was made from cast iron. They learned to make cast iron by melting melting and molding crude iron. Later they discovered that blowing air onto melted cast iron forms steel.
In the fifth century, the Chinese learned to mix cast iron with wrought iron, which is softer that cast iron. Combining the two forms of iron under high heat turns them into steel. Porcelain Military Technology
During the Song and Mongol periods, the Chinese developed powerful weapons. The invention of gunpowder made these weapons possible.
The Chinese who first made gunpowder were alchemists. They experimented with mixtures of natural ingredients, trying to find a material that would allow people to live forever. Accidentally, they discovered gunpowder. Everyday Objects
The Chinese invented many everyday objects like playing cards, paper money and mechanical clocks. All of these inventions were made during the Tang dynasty.
Playing cards were invented in the 9th century. There are thirty two playing cards in a typical Chinese deck. Disease Prevention
The Chinese used to burn a poisonous smoke as a disinfectant.
They also steamed the cloths of sick people to kill germs.
During the 10th century, the Chinese discovered how to inoculate people against diseases. Inoculation stimulated a person’s immune system to fight particular diseases which led to the development of drugs called vaccines. movable type Erie Canal China’s Contacts with
the Outside World Introduction
At times, the Chinese welcomed foreign contacts.
Xuan Zang, a Chinese monk brought back Buddhism from a trip to India. Foreign Contacts Under the Tang Dynasty
During the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese welcomed foreign contact.
Trade flourished in Central Asia, Persia, Byzantine Empire, Korea, Japanese, Indonesia, and India.
The Chinese traded silk, porcelain, paper, iron, and jade in exchange for ivory, cotton, perfumes, spices, and horses. The Chinese learned to make sugar from sugarcane, and wine from grapes from India. New medicines also came from India.
New religions also entered China. Jews, Christians, and Muslims built houses of worship. They were even allowed to preach, but few Chinese converted. Buddhism came to China hundreds of years earlier. It gained great influence and many Chinese became Buddhists. Foreign Contacts Under the Tang Dynasty Continued
Toward the end of the Tang, foreigners & their beliefs became less welcome.
The government placed restrictions on foreigners, when a people called the Uighurs began attacking China. Foreign Contacts Under the Mongols
The Mongols conquered the Song and called their dynasty the Yuan.
The Silk Road became safe again and trade flourished along with maritime, relating to the sea, trade.
Travel and trade expanded as never before and more foreigners came to China. Foreign Contacts Under the Mongols Continued
Mongols & foreigners had more privileges, didn’t pay taxes, could travel freely, and were higher on the social order.
Under Kublai Khan, life was unpleasant for the native Chinese. Foreign Contacts Under the Ming dynasty
The Chinese rebelled against the Mongols and the Ming dynasty ruled China. Ming rulers tried to isolate China from foreign influences.
Under the Ming, many other countries were China's tributaries, a ruler or country that pays tribute to a conqueror.
Zheng He was given a fleet of 300 ships (27 000 men) to sail to “the countries beyond the horizon” to give gifts and collect tribute. Foreign Contacts Under the Ming Dynasty Continued
In 1434 a new emperor was persuaded to stop expansive expeditions. The dynasty turned inward.
Rulers forbade travel and contact with foreigners.
The Ming desire for uniformity made it difficult for the government to change to new conditions. In 1644, peasant rebellions ended the Ming dynasty. Group #2 Changes in Agriculture Continued
During the 11th century, a new kind of rice was brought to China from Southeast Asia. The new type of rice was resistant to droughts and matured in two months instead of five.
Because of the increase of crop production, better farming techniques and tools were developed. For example, an improved plow and harrow, a farm tool used to break up and even out plowed ground, made it easier to prepare fields for planting. A chain pump, a pump with containers attached to a loop of chain to lift water and carry it where it was wanted, helped farmers irrigate land at the edges of lake, marshes, and rivers.
With an increase in food, peasants had time to make silk, cotton cloth, and other products to sell or trade. Welcome to China!! The Growth of Trade and Commerce Continued
With an increase in buying and selling, people needed more currency, the form of money used in a country. Moneylenders started making paper money for use as currency.
The growth of trade and commerce had three major effects. First, it caused the growth of the merchant class. Second, it gave China the highest standard of living in the world. Third, many commercial centers became big cities. Exploration and Travel Continued
The Chinese also invented the canal lock, a gated chamber in a canal used to raise or lower the water level. Before the canal lock was invented, a person would have to drag their boat up stone ramps to reach water at a higher level.
The canal lock helped. When a boat entered the lock, a gate was lowered to hold in water. The water was then allowed to rise or drop until it the water was level to the water up ahead.
The Chinese also improved bridges. They designed a bridge that rested on a segment of a circle called a segmental arch bridge. A segmental arch bridge is a bridge supported by arches that are shallow segments (parts) of a circle. magnetic compass segmental arch bridge Military Technology Continued
Between the 11th and 14th centuries, the Chinese created many weapons that used gunpowder. For example, artillery shells exploded after being thrown at enemies with catapults, a slingshot-like war machine used for shooting rocks shells and other objects. Grenades were also invented during this period.
In the 13th century, the Chinese used bombs that were as explosive as modern bombs.
During the Song dynasty, rocket technology was developed. Everyday Objects Continued
Paper money was invented in the late 8th century or the early 9th century.
The mechanical clock was invented about the 8th century and improved through the years. Ancient Chinese Playing Cards Foreign Contacts Under the Tang Dynasty Continued
In 843, the Tang needed money and seized Buddhist property; Monasteries, shrines, and temples were destroyed.
Trade shifted from the Silk Road to the sea. Foreign Contacts Under the Mongols Continued
Trade was actively promoted and stations were set up along the Silk Road every 20 miles.Safe regular travel regularly flourished from Europe to China as did sea trade.
Many foreigners who came to China brought special skills. Muslim architects built the Mongol capital of Dadu, present day Beijing. Jamal al-Din, a Persian astronomer, introduced new and better astronomical instruments. He also helped develop a new calendar and set up an observatory, a building designed for observing the stars and planets. Thanks For Watching a barge End of Day 1