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Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Transcript of Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations
Germany signed the
armistice, ending the
war, yet starting a
series of new problems
for Europe. Why did the League of Nations
fail in its aim to keep peace? The Crisis' Manchurian Crisis Abyssinian Crisis Events Organisation of the League Membership The
Paris Peace Conference Germany's Reaction Treaty Of Versailles How did the
Treaty of Versailles
establish peace? In January 1919, 32 states attended the Paris Peace Conference, none of the defeated powers or Russia attended. The main decisions were made by Clemenceau (France), Wilson (USA) and Lloyd George (Britain) - the 'Big 3'. June 28th 1919 Diktat - dictated peace, Germany thought
they could negotiate the terms but they were only given 3 weeks to object. Felt that as they hadn't drawn terms up didn't have to keep them. Aim of the league was to join together to prevent war, only the most victorious countries joined. USA did not, Germany not allowed and Russia was not invited - 'League of Victors' ASSEMBLY - each member state was represented
- met once a year
- discussed general topics such as treaties
and admission of new members
- all decisions had to be UNANIMOUS - Japan dissatisfied with peace settlement at end of WW1
- Population increasing
- Wall Street Crash in 1929 led to reduction in markets
- Increased poverty and unrest - Italy unhappy with peace settlement, did not receive as much land as Allies promised in 1915
- Mussolini wanted to increase his popularity by restoring glory of the Roman empire
- Next to other colonies, easy to launch attack
- Divert Italian attention from depression Clemenceau + France - Revenge
- Gain security, prevent
attack on frontiers
- Keep Germany weak (disarm)
- Regain Alsace and Lorraine
- Pay reparations Lloyd George + Britain - Compromise between extreme
- Recovery of German economy
- 'Make Germany Pay' Campaign
- Worried that too harsh = communism Woodrow Wilson + USA - Idealist, long lasting peace
- 14 Points
- But America didn't want
anything to do with Europe
(isolation) (L) loss of land (A) army - military
restrictions (M) money - reparations (B) blame - war guilt - 72500km2 of land lost
- 6 - 7 million people lost
- Anschluss forbidden
- Lost all colonies £6.6 billion
over 42 years - Only 100 000 men in army
- No conscription/tanks/
- Rhineland demilitarised - Germany had to accept the blame for starting the war, clause 231 Loss of Land - Lost 1.5 million German speaking people, lead to war
- Annoyed as against self determination
- Distribution of colonies seen as unfair Military Restrictions - Had taken pride in army
- Too small to defend itself, or keep order in country War Guilt - Felt they were being blamed for actions of Kaiser and other countries
- Unfair to blame new gov. for behaviour of old one
- Disgraced and humiliated Reparations - Too much to pay, war also costly for them
- Longer reparations went on, longer it would take to recover and for bitterness to disappear Strengths - Compensation for Britain and France
- Brought peace to Europe
- Set up League of Nations Weaknesses - If Germany ever recovered they would want to get rid of the terms. leading to future problems.
- Too much faith in League of Nations (not enough power given to it)
- USA didn't sign treaty of join L of N in
the end Covenant of the League 26 articles that all member states had to agree to, to improve international cooperation, peace and security. The compulsory registration
of all treaties to avoid further
secret alliances The reduction and control
of arms so that there
would be no future
arms race A method of solving disputes between countries known as collective security Membership 1919 - 1939 France
Japan 1919 1933 Join... Leave... 1926 Join... 1934 Leave... 1937 End of the League, start
of WW2 1939 Join... Germany Germany USSR Italy due to the efforts of Stresemann, move out of
economic depression alongside disarmament conference. Didn't want to disarm. Japan Manchurian Crisis Abyssinian Crisis PERMANENT COURT OF JUSTICE - 15 judges chosen from nations of league
- set up at The Hague, Netherlands
- dealt with disputes between countries
over international law
- no means of enforcing decisions,
depended on good will Made up of 5 permanent members, then 4 (Britain, France, Italy and Japan). Joined by 4 non - permanent members, elected over 3 year period. Solve disputes between states. Moral Condemnation Military Force Economic Sanctions The Council all countries put pressure on the aggressor in order to shame that country into stopping the war and accepting League's decision all countries in the League would stop trading with the aggressor all countries in the League would contribute to an armed force that would act against the aggressor Weaknesses
League of Nations No military Voting Court of Justice Meetings Members In practice countries
hesitant to raise armed forces- how could they enforce on big countries? It had to be unanimous, so nothing was ever really passed No means to enforce suggestions, dependent on good will Infrequent, once a year - not enough to stay fully in control
Veto - every country could say no Germany/ Austria - how can you stop them from starting a war if they are not involved? USA - their idea, then didn't run it
- lacked strength, money France/Britain - self interest
- didn't want to lead
- wanted to remain powerful Manchukuo Lytton Commission September 1931 Series of Events Effect of Manchurian Crisis on the League Japanese claimed that there was
an explosion on the railway line at
Mukden, they said it was sabotage by the Chinese
Not certain as railway was not disrupted
Gave army an excuse to invade.
Japanese army quickly defeated Chinese at Mukden.
Action taken by army without permission from the government but it was so popular that the army then took control China appealed to the League of Nations.
Lytton Commission issued report year later.
Found China's rule chaotic and Japan had some grievances, but the invasion was condemned and it was recommended that Manchuria should be self governing Japanese reorganised Manchuria to Manchukuo.
Supposed to be independent state, but was controlled by Japan.
Put in puppet leader Pu Yi.
Early 1933 Japan occupied whole of Manchuria.
The League then formally condemned Japan's action.
Simply left and went on to occupy Jehol SANCTIONS - were discussed but not used as Japan's main trading partner was the USA, not in L of N, no effect ECONOMIC DEPRESSION - all countries were suffering and did not want to be involved in international problems. Britain didn't want trade with Asia affected. BRITAIN/FRANCE - didn't want to risk fleet, no intention of sending troops USSR - nearest country, not a member Noted by Italy and Germany as a failure and offered later challenges to the league Manchurian Crisis - given impression that the League would not resist an act of aggression by a major power Stresa Front - In 1935 Britain, France and Italy formed a united front against Germany which opposed their aims to change the T of V. French were so keen to have Italy's support
they gave the impression they would not
oppose him. Hoare - Laval Pact British and French Self Interest Effect on the League Sanctions December 1934 Abyssinian Crisis Clash between Italian and Abyssinian soldiers at Wal Wal on the border, with some loss of life
Dispute went to league for a decision
Clear Mussolini was planning to go to war as Italians built up their forces .
Italian forces invaded Abyssinia on October 3rd 1935 League condemned Italy's invasion as an
act of aggression Trade in arms was immediately stopped but it took another 2 months for other sanctions to be put in place Britain and France didn't want to lose Mussolini's alliance to Hitler, so did not want to upset him. So limited sanctions were placed. Vital goods such as oil, coal, iron and steel were excluded from sanctions. USA supplied oil to to Italy, France continued to provide iron and steel, Britain feared increased unemployment in coal industry if they sanctioned it. Could have stopped Italy by closing the Suez Canal to Italian ships, easiest route to Abyssinia but they didn't want to lose Mussolini's friendship Italy used modern warfare against spears and out of date rifles but the occupation was not as swift as he had hoped. December 1935 Sir Hoare, and the French Prime Minister Laval made a secret agreement to give Italy two thirds of Abyssinia. But it was leaked and was so unpopular that it had to be dropped and Hoare resigned. May 1936, Italians captured capital and in June the Emperor Haile Selassie made a personal appeal for further help to the League. But the war was over and Mussolini won. Left League in May 1936, sanctions withdrawn in July. Abyssinian Crisis marked the end of the League as a means of keeping the peace. Only Britain, France and USSR were left.