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Transcript of Body Systems
By: Elizabeth Connolly, Rebecca Ruiz, and Drexel Evans
The Digestive System
There are six types of nutrition avalible in foods: carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, water, fats, and protiens.
Both minerals and water are inorganic nutrients which means that they don't have to be digested, they get absorbed directly into the blood stream.
However; carbohydrates, vitamins, water, fats, and protiens are organic nutrients which means that they require digestion.
The Parts of The Digestion System
Functions of The Digestive System
The Lymphatic System
The Muscular System
The major organs of the digestive system are the esophagus, mouth, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, the rectum, and the anus.
The accessory organs of the digestive system are the salivary glands, tongue, teeth, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.
The Circulatory System
the flow of blood through the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart.
the blood returning from the body is full of wastes (CO )
The Skeletal System
Functional blood supply to the heart its self.
The circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle. The vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the heart are the coronary arteries. The vessels that remove the deoxygenated blood from the heart are the cardiac veins.
Systemic circulation supplies oxygen to the tissues throughout your body, except your heart and lungs because they have their own systems. Systemic circulation is a major part of the overall circulatory system.
Atherosclerosis: which an artery wall thickens because of accumulation of calcium and fatty materials such as cholesterol. It reduces the elasticity of the artery walls and therefore increases blood pressure.
cells occur here.
You can donate bone marrow to people having trouble with creating cells, such as people suffering from leukemia.
Your bone structure changes all the time. Your skeleton will only be the same for 10 years! Its because of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts add cells to the bone, and osteoclasts disintegrate bone in certain areas.
The compact bone is the hard, dense outer layer that is found outside the bones. It is solidly filled with organic ground substances and inorganic salts, leaving only tiny spaces that contain the osteocytes, or bone cells. Compact bone makes up 80 percent of the human skeleton.
Homeostasis is the act of an open system, especially living organisms, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition.
Fills the interior of the bone which is a network of rod- and plate-like elements that make the overall organ lighter and allow room for blood vessels and marrow. It accounts for 20% of total bone mass but has nearly ten times the surface area of compact bone.
The mouth uses both mechanical and chemical digestion to break down food.
Saliva is mixed in with your food so that it becomes a soft mass and is moved to the back of the throat and is swallowed.
For an impulse to travel from one neuron to the next, it crosses a small space called a synapse. Also, when an impulse reaches the end of the axon, it releases a chemical and that also travels in the synapse.
The Central Nervous System
It's made up of the brain and the spinal cord. This system is responsible for sending, receiving, and interpreting information from all parts of the body.
The Peripheral Nervous System.
The Kidneys are bean shaped organs
that help filter blood in most vertebrate
•remove waste products from the body
•remove drugs from the body
•balance the body's fluids
•release hormones that regulate blood pressure
•produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones
•control the production of red blood cells
The Esophagus is about 25 centimeters long and it only takes 4-10 seconds for food to pass through it.
The Esophagus uses peristalsis to move your food down into your stomach.
In the stomach both chemical and mechanical digestion occur. Cells in the stomach release hydrochloric acid which digests the food and turns it into chyme in a matter of 2-4 hours.
The Small Intestine
The small intestine is 4-7 meters long. The first part of the small intestine and where most of the digestion takes place is the duodenum. Bile is added and mixed with the chyme by persistalsis. The remaining mass is moved to the large intestine.
The Large Intestine
The main job of the large intestine is to absorb the rest of the water from the mass. The mass can be in the large intestine for up to three days. It would probably take a shorter amount of time but peristalsis slows down the process.
The Rectum & The Anus
Both the rectum and the anus control the output of wastes.
Enzymes are a type of protein that speeds up the rate of chemical digestion. There are many types of enzymes such as amylase which is made by
The Lymphatic System
The Lymphatic System collects excess water from in between cells and circulates it back into the blood.
The Lymphatic System is made up
The main organs of the lymphatic system are the spleen, the tonsils, the lymph nodes, and the thymus.
The spleen is located on the left of your stomach, your tonsils are located at the back of your throat, your lymph nodes are scattered all over your body and your thymus is behind your sternum.
Thymus: Makes lymphocytes and is a soft tissue.
Lymph Nodes: Filter out microorganisms and unknown materials
Spleen: It is the largest lymphatic organ and filters out blood by removing damaged or dead red blood cells
Tonsils: The tonsils defend your body from microorganisms that enter through your nose and mouth.
Diseases of the Lymphatic System
HIV is probably the most deadly virus that can effect your lymphatic system. It attacks a special type of lymphocyte cell called helper T-cells. By destroying these vital cells your immune system is severely damaged and you will probably die from some other infection or disease.
The epidermis is the outer layer of your skin and includes the part of your skin you see every day – the surface. However, the epidermis is comprised of more than just the skin's surface. It consists of a number of levels, each with their own distinct role.
The dermis is the inner layer of your skin. It is a thick layer of connective tissue and is itself divided into two levels. The upper level of the dermis, known as the papillary region, is made of loose connective tissue, while the lower level, called the reticular layer, is comprised of tissue that is more tightly packed.
Nose and Nasal Cavity
The nose and nasal cavity form the main external opening for the respiratory system and are the first section of the body’s airway—the respiratory tract through which air moves. The nose is a structure of the face made of cartilage, bone, muscle, and skin that supports and protects the anterior portion of the nasal cavity. The nasal cavity is a hollow space within the nose and skull that is lined with hairs and mucus membrane. The function of the nasal cavity is to warm, moisturize, and filter air entering the body before it reaches the lungs.
The mouth, also known as the oral cavity, is the secondary external opening for the respiratory tract. Most normal breathing takes place through the nasal cavity, but the oral cavity can be used to supplement or replace the nasal cavity’s functions when needed. Because the pathway of air entering the body from the mouth is shorter than the pathway for air entering from the nose, the mouth does not warm and moisturize the air entering the lungs as well as the nose performs this function.
The pharynx, also known as the throat, is a muscular funnel that extends from the posterior end of the nasal cavity to the superior end of the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx is divided into 3 regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the superior region of the pharynx found in the posterior of the nasal cavity. Inhaled air from the nasal cavity passes into the nasopharynx and descends through the oropharynx, located in the posterior of the oral cavity. Air inhaled through the oral cavity enters the pharynx at the oropharynx. The inhaled air then descends into the laryngopharynx, where it is diverted into the opening of the larynx by the epiglottis. The epiglottis is a flap of elastic cartilage that acts as a switch between the trachea and the esophagus. Because the pharynx is also used to swallow food, the epiglottis ensures that air passes into the trachea by covering the opening to the esophagus.
The larynx is located within the anterior aspect of the neck, anterior to the inferior portion of the pharynx and superior to the trachea. Its primary function is to protect the lower airway by closing abruptly upon mechanical stimulation, thereby halting respiration and preventing the entry of foreign matter into the airway. Other functions of the larynx include the production of sound (phonation), coughing, the Valsalva maneuver, and control of ventilation, and acting as a sensory organ.
melanin is a pigment that protects your skin
and gives it color
Dead cells and sweat are removed
from the body through the skin
Waste gases are carried by blood traveling through the veins to the lungs where respiration takes place.
There are two classifications of muscles, voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary muscles such as your legs and arms you can move at will. But your involuntary muscles such as your heart move without you having to think about it.
Classifying Muscle Tissue
There is three types of muscle tissue. Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle can only be found in the heart. Smooth muscle is located in your internal organs. And skeletal muscle is attached to bones which they help move.
Changes in Muscles
Your muscles can either grow or shrink depending on how much you use them. If you write with your left hand the muscles in your left hand will be larger than on your right hand because you use your left hand more.
Your muscles move by contracting and relaxing, one skeletal muscle contracts and the other relaxes.
Did You Know?: Muscles only pull, they don't push
Glencoe Science, Level Blue Book, Chapters 6, 7, & 8.
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