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Texas Annexation/War with Mexico
Transcript of Texas Annexation/War with Mexico
The War with Mexico California Gold Rush Gadsen Purchase The Alamo Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildago Mexican Independence The state of Texas Mexican-American War From the 16th century to the 19th century, Spain controlled the Mexican territory.
The Mexican War of Independence occurred in 1810-1821.
In 1821, Mexico would claim its independence.
Before 1821, only a few thousand Mexicans lived in what is today called Texas.
This was due to friction between Mexicans and the native populations.
To prevent border violations by horse thieves and to protect the territory from Native American attacks, Mexico began to offer empresarios, or land grants, to American settlers.
Soon, the vast majority of people living in Texas were of European descent.
Until the 1830s, the Anglo settlers lived as naturalized Mexican citizens. The most successful empresario, Stephen F. Austin, established a colony in Texas.
After his success, word would spread to the United States about Texas.
Andrew Jackson would try to buy the property for 5 million but Mexico would not sell it. Lone Star Repulic Texas Revolution Tensions grew between Mexico and its Anglo population over the issue of slavery.
Many of these settlers were Southern cotton or sugar farmers who brought slaves with them.
Mexico, who abolished slavery in 1824, insisted that the Texans free their slaves. From 1830-5, Mexico sealed its borders and put an import tax on American goods.
After Stephen Austin repealed this prohibition, more than 1,0oo Anglos would flood to Texas each month.
By 1836, Texas' population included only 3,500 Tejanos (Mexican inhabitants in Texas), 12,000 Native Americans, 45,000 Anglos and 5,000 African Americans.
Austin would go to Mexico City to petition Mexican president Señor Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna for great self-government. Santa Anna would suspend the Mexican constitution while Austin was on his way home.
Afterwards Santa Anna would imprison Austin for inciting a revolution.
Santa Anna would revoke local powers in Texas and other Mexican states and many rebellions would occur.
These would be known as the Texas Revolution. Determined to force Texas to obey laws he had established, Santa Anna marched towards San Antonio with 4,000 Mexican troops.
At the same time Austin and his followers issued a call for Texans to arm themselves. In late 1835, Texans attacked and drove Mexican forces out of the Alamo, an abandoned mission used as a fort.
Santa Anna swept northward and stormed and destroyed the small American garrison in the Alamo.
All 187 defenders died.
This included the famous frontiersman Jim Bowie (known for developing the Bowie knife) and Davy Crockett (king of the wild frontier.) After the Alamo, Santa Anna's troops would execute 300 rebels in Goliad.
These two loses would give the rebels motivation to strike back.
Led by Sam Houston, the rebels would defeat Santa Anna in the Battle of San Jacinto.
With shouts of "Remember the Alamo," the Texans killed 630 of Santa Anna's soldiers in 15 minutes. The victorious Texans would set Santa Anna free after he signed the Treaty of Velasco, which gave Texans independence.
In September 1836, Houston would become the President of the Republic of Texas.
The new "Lone Star Republic" set up an army and a navy.
Texas Embassy In 1838, Sam Houston invited the United States to annex the Texas republic into the United States.
U.S. opinion on annexation differed along sectional lines.
Southerners sought to extend slavery, already established in Texas.
Northerners feared that annexation of more slave territories would tip the uneasy balance in the Senate in favor of slave states (and war with Mexico). In 1844, the U.S. presidential election featured a debate on westward expansion.
The winner of the election, James K. Polk (who was a slaveholder), favored the annexation of Texas.
On December 29, 1845, Texas became the 28th state in the Union.
A furious Mexican government recalled its ambassador from Washington.
Events were moving quickly towards war. Santa Anna gets ousted as Mexico's President.
James K. Polk sent a Spanish speaking emissary, John Slidell to purchase California and the New Mexico territory from Mexico.
When Mexican officials refused to talk to him, Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to march to the Rio Grande. Here he would be ordered to blockade the river. Mexicans saw this as a violation of their rights.
Many Americans shared Polk's goals for expansion, but the public was split on military action.
Slavery would become the key issue complicating this debate.
Northerners would oppose war, seeing the war as a plot to expand slavery into this territory and ensure Southern domination of the Union.
An unknown Representative from Illinois, Abraham Lincoln questioned Polk's motives for war. As Zachary Taylor position his forces in the Rio Grande, John C. Fremont led an exploration party through Mexico's Alta California province. Mexico saw this as a violation of their territorial rights.
Mexico had enough, so they responded to Taylor's invasion by sending troops across the Rio Grande.
Polk persuaded the House of Represenatives to recognize a state of war with Mexico by a vote of 174 to 14.
During the early 19th century, numerous westward moving Americans began inhabiting California.
The group of settlers, led by Fremont, declared their independence and called themselves the Republic of California, also called the Bear Flag Republic.
Fremont would join forces with Colonel Stephen Kearny and Commondore John D. Sloat and would drive Mexican troops out of California.
For American troops in Mexico, one military victory followed another. Mexico had very poor military leadership. The US soldiers served under some of the nation's best officers, such as Captain Robert E. Lee and Captain Ulysses S. Grant.
Polk would conduct a bizzare scheme with the exiled Santa Anna to sneak into Mexico and resume presidency.
Though this plot would fail, General Winfield Scott took advantage of this failed strategy and would capture the city of Veracruz. Afterwards he would capture Mexico City.
Results of the War:
25,000 deaths - Mexico
13,000 deaths - US
2,000 died in battle and more than 11,000 perished from diseases such as yellow fever.
On a lighter note, the war also brought the beard to the United States.... The United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago.
Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border for Texas and ceded New Mexico, Utah, and California to the United States.
The United States agreed to pay $15 million dollars for the Mexico cession.
This included the above states along with Nevada and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
Finally, the treaty guaranteed Meixcans living in these territories freedom of religion, protection of propert, bilingual education, and open borders. Five years after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago, President Franklin Pierce would authorize the payment of $10 million dollars for another piece of territory.
This territory was south of the Gila River.
James Gadsden would be the emissary in charge of this purchase.
The Gadsden Purchase, along with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago and the settle ment of Oregon, would establish the current borders of the lower 48 states. In January of 1848, gold was discovered in the California Sierra Nevadas.
After this discovery, the RUSH began!
From 1848 to 1850, the population of migrants to California went from 400 to 44,000.
The people who moved to this region were called "forty-niners" due to the fact that the majority of the migration was done in the year 1849.
These fourty-niners came from not only the East Coast, but from Asia, South America, and Europe. California's population became so vast, that it applied for statehood.
Application for statehood provoked fiery protest in Congress and became one more sore point between irate Northerners and Southerners.
Each side was determined to win the sectional argument over slavery.
Regardless, California became a state in 1850. Wilmont Proviso Pennsylvania Democrat David Wilmont heightened tensions between the North and the South by introducing an amendment to a military appropriations bill.
This amendment proposed that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist" in any territory the United States might acquire as a result of the war with Mexico.
This meant that the Wilmont Proviso would close slavery to the California as well as the territories of Utah and New Mexico.
Northerners, angry over the refusal of Southern congressment to vote for internal improvements such as roads or canals, supported this proviso.
Southerners, seeing slaves as personal property, opposed the proviso.
The Southern congressmen saw this law as undermining the protections covered in the Constitution.
They also saw this as a way to shift the balanace of power to the north permanently.
The House approved this proviso but the Senate would reject it
This is going to bring tensions between the two sections to a boiling point...