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Russia's Legal Reforms

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by

Kiki Kurosawa

on 27 August 2014

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Transcript of Russia's Legal Reforms

Tsarist Legal Policy
Legal and Moral Reform
Russian governmental reform
State Courts
Senate, Chambers of Justice, Provincial Courts
Judges
Trained lawyers (for plaintiff + defendant)
Jury
Public trials
Limit on referrals
Oral exchanges
Case Study
Trial of Vera Zasulich - 1878, Saint Petersburg
New, independent judicial system implemented
Russia's Legal Reforms
(1860s-1870s)

Kiki Kurosawa, Simran Sawhney, Anna McMaster
Serfdom:
immoral
criticised by foreign media
Emancipation:
used for selfish reasons by nobility
"NO GREASE, NO MOTION."
Senate
Nov. 1864
Chambers of Justice (10 tribunals)
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Provincial Courts
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District Courts (with panels of JPs)
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1872 Amendment
Crimes against state - political enemies
Peasant
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Sentencing
Prescriptive
Jury compassion
Often convicted of crime different to the one committed
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Army
Church
For internal security reasons
'Administrative arrest'
Courts bypassed
Exiled
No right of appeal
Senate - in secret
Free Speech
More tolerated
Lawyers could criticize officials/regime
In conclusion...
District/Magistrate's Courts (with one JP)
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Handles full jurisdictions for divorce cases
Ran parallel with the state courts
Presided over exclusively military crimes (disobeying a direct order)
Investigation
1861 - Alexander II asks for report
Designed to settle disputes only between peasants
Favoured nobility:
Slow
No lawyers/jury
Only written evidence admissible
Confidential
Corrupt
Ministry of Justice
&
Section II, Imperial Chancery
Head:
Deputy:
Zamiatnin + Zarudny

(conservatives)

V.S.

Panin + Bludov
(reformers)
Basic
Principles
Report to Alexander II - 1862
1. Judicial systems in foreign countries investigated

2. Basic Principles written up

3. Consultation - Council of State & Alexander II

4. Adopted in 1864

Russia's need for reform has always been recognised
Tsar's attempt to please Slavophiles and Westernisers and kept autocratic regime
Radical extremism
1866 - repressive and conservative
less freedom of press
greater censorship
Russian people were never happy
Full transcript