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MPW2133 Malaysian Studies Presentation

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on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of MPW2133 Malaysian Studies Presentation

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Question 5 MPW2133 Malaysian Studies Presentation 5a) Comparisons of Chinese, Indian and Malay Culture. - Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarch located in the heart of Southeast Asia and this country consists of a total population over 28.3 million.
- There are three main races in Malaysia: The Malays (53.3%), who are Muslims and form the majority in the country; while the other two main racial groups are the Chinese (26.0%) and the Indians (7.7%).
- They have different codes of dress, customs, value systems and beliefs (Hirschman, 1987).
- Although each of these ethnic groups has its own culture, and has vigorously maintained its traditions and community structures, these cultures have also blended together to create Malaysia’s contemporary and uniquely diverse heritage (Lim, 2004).
Food Chinese FOOD Religion The official religion in Malaysia is Islam, and it is practiced by the majority of Malays. Under the constitution, other races are free to profess and practice any religion in an atmosphere of acceptance and tolerance. The other main religion includes Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity.
5b) In your opinion, what can be done to create unity and national integration? Introduction - Unity in diversity aims to bring different races closer and develop the nation

- Malaysia is made up of various ethnics living together in harmony and it is the diversity that makes this country beautiful
The riots of May 1969 constantly reminds us the importance of unity and national integration in our country

- The riot that took place only 12 years after the declaration of independence erupted in major cities such as Kuala Lumpur between the Malays and Chinese, taking away hundreds of innocent lives before the restoration of order was gradually achieved within 2 months
- The labeling of races should be removed
- People of Malaysia should be regarded as Malaysians and not referred
according to their races or ethnic groups such as the Chinese, Indian
or Malay
- Labelling of races is present in almost all forms of documentation, -
from official government forms to job applications
- Politics of Malaysia is a prime example of racial labelling
- The ruling alliance of Barisan Nasional formed on the basis of
protecting the rights of their respective race forming racial specific
parties
- Interests of the parties race will come first before the good of the
nation
- need for more non racial based parties to be formed and represented
in the governance of Malaysia
- This makes a major step in unifying the people of Malaysia
Introduction - Mainly based on Cantonese Food.- Well known chinese food usually are stir-fried with
a touch of oil to bring out the crispiness and
freshness of the ingredients.- Dim sum- Dim sum is usually consumed during breakfast or
lunch.
- Cantonese cuisine can also offer real extremes -
- shark's fin soup or bird's nest soup,
- expensive delicacies from one end of the scale to noodles and congee on the other end.
- most widespread economical meals is the Hainanese Chicken Rice as well as steamboat.
- Teochew food is famous for its seafood and another economical dish - Char Kwey Teow (fried flattened noodles).
- Hokkien's food is rated way down the Chinese
gastronomic scale, it has provided the Hokkien fried
Mee (thick egg noodles cook with meat, seafood
and vegetable and a rich soya sauce ) as well as
Hokkien spring rolls (popiah).
- the best known hakka dish is the Yong Tau Foo (stuffed seafood beancurd) with soup or thick dark gravy.    
Festival - Aidiladha is also commonly known as Hari Raya Korban or Hari Raya Haji in Malaysia.Celebrated about two months after Hari Raya Aidilfitri.
Maal Hijrah, which is also called Awal Muharram - Chinese New Year in Malaysia 
- Chap Goh Mei
- Tang Lung (Mooncake Festival)
- ThaipusamDeepavali
Political culture Language and Art As an estimate, there are over 70 over languages in malaysia segregated among three main ehthics group which are the chinese, indian and malay. It also includes languages that are from the aborigines of mainly people residing in sabah and Sarawak whose language are what some consider native.
Main Languages- Bahasa Melayu- Mandarin- Tamil
Besides languages, the three main cultures in Malaysia would have different expression and appearance when it comes to style and art.
- (M) Baju Melayu which would be a tonic worn over trousers and usually accompanied with a “sampin”.
- (F) Baju Kurung which as a knee-length blouse worn over a long skirt
- (F) Chinese woman are famed for their cheongsam, a one-piece dress with a high collar, diagonally closed with small clips.
- (M) Chinese man would fancy a short sleeved shirt worn over trousers and comfortable sandals
- (F) Indian woman would usually wear sarees, a cloth of 5-6 yards that is usually worn with a petticoat of a similar shade
- (M) Indian man would wear “kurta”, a knee length shirt made from cotton or linen •Kavanagh (1987) defined political culture as orientation and principles that are solely defined by several elements of political action, such as traditions, historical values, motives, norms and symbols
•In other words, it is also the political psychology of a country or nation, signified by the attitudes, beliefs, and values which underpin the operation of a particular political system.
The political landscape of Malaysia is thus largely, if not entirely, designed and determined by its racial composition.
•In brief, during the British colonial period two distinct arenas were created as a result of entrepreneurial policies encouraged in the form of bureaucratic state and capitalist enterprises as institutional carriers of secularisation (Yeoh Seng Guan, 2011):

o Immigrant Chinese and Indians experienced the full intensity of capitalist intrusions, through education and employment,

oWhile British protectionist policy towards the indigenous Malay peasantry mitigated the cultivation of individualised and pluralistic consciousness within rural Malay society.

oThis has continued in the postcolonial milieu.
The politics of race and ethnicity in Malaysia is indeed the politics of a plural society.
•The eect of a racialised practice over fifty years is the institutionalisation of the politics of ethnic pluralism, each component driven by its own internal dynamic and cultural logic:
o for the Chinese it is the politics of economic security,
o for the Tamils the politics of religion and caste,
o and for the Malays incipient class antagonisms that are historically rooted in a feudal society
•Cham (1975) and Lim (1980) : In orthodox Marxist terms, racial conflict in Malaysia was described as a smokescreen created by the ruling class to maintain its position of privilege and advantage.
•In his exploration of the relationship between race and class, Husin Ali (1984, pp. 17-26) takes to task the common impression at that time that the Chinese control the economy while the Malays wield political power. •The Malays religiously maintain the features of the old political dominance throughout their practised political culture such as absolute royalty to the rulers, the sanctity of the upper-class leaders, as well as adhering to direct and counselled approaches to the ruling structure.

•Yaacob (2006) contends that it is clear that the Malaysian government has used as its primary definer the Malay political culture as a means to ensure commonality within its society, and we see this in the use of traditional symbols such as:
o the feudal system,
o the insititution of monarchy,
o Islam as the official religion and so forth
•One of the important conditions that the British insisted on in granting independence to Malaya in 1957 was that power be shared by the Malays, Chinese and Indians within an ethnically consociational (i.e. guaranteed group representation) state.
•As a consequence, the Alliance party constituted by UMNO, MCA and the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC), representing the three major ethnic communities, became the ruling government amidst high expectations and hope.
Education - Education helps strengthen national integration

- Education plays a role in nurturing national consciousness,
molding national identity and forging national unity amongst the
various ethnic groups and races in Malaysia

- The younger generation needs to be educated on the different
cultures of various races in Malaysia and the importance of unity
amongst all the ethnic groups

- This way, the youngsters will learn to respect and understand the
ethnicity issues and challenges also providing fair and equal
treatment to all regardless of race and ethnic groups

- This can be achieved by educating the younger generations in
schools (curricular and extra-curricular activities)

- Education also begins at home. Parents play a role in educating
their children on the importance of unity in the country Economic Policy - Unity and national integration in Malaysia can be created by reducing the income gap between the races
- Malaysia is a country with 13 states and 3 federal territories. The development has been lopsided with most of the wealth centered on the Klang Valley while many other states register significant number of its population as still living under the poverty line.
- As the highest incidence of poverty is still the natives and a particular race is dominating the economy, dissatisfaction may arise between the races. Example : New Economic Policy (NEP)
Suggestions - Economic policies that can help to reduce the income gap between races are by getting the government to encourage companies owned either by the Malay, Chinese and Indian to employ employees from all races.

- opening up job vacancies in the government sector to the non-bumiputras

- reduce the bureaucracy in doing business in this country and provide loans to businesses and citizens regardless of race.
1 MALAYSIA - In the Prime Minister’s website, the concept is described as being intended to provide a free and open forum to discuss the things that matter to us as a nation.

- It provides a chance to express and explore the many perspectives of our fellow citizens. All of us despite our differences have a desire for a better country and want respect, friendship, and understanding. - The media is responsible in portraying the desired image of 1Malaysia which creates the picture of people of different races living together in harmony

- The media should also avoid from giving publicity to politicians

1Malaysia Youth Fund
- RM20 million is provided as financial aid for young people to
produce creative projects that create national unity.
- National unity has been one of the fundamental themes for nation building

- Since the independence of Malaya then the formation of Malaysia September 16, 1963 the idea of state nationalism which precedes nation building activity serves as a device to unite people by creating the sentiment of belonging and common identity

- The creation of a Malaysian national culture is intended to achieve, strengthening social and national unity through culture, nurturing and preserving a national identity which stems from a national culture, and enriching and increasing the quality of life from a practical and spiritual perspective, in line with socioeconomic development
- Political power sharing undoubtedly creates unity in Malaysia.
- Prior to independence, leaders consisting of the three main races namely Malay, Chinese and Indian have understood power sharing is essential and was conducted fairly to avoid power misconduct and divisions.
- The top government positions, contesting candidates and election sets shouldn’t be dominated only by one ethnic. 
- National culture can also create a national identity that can be recognized by foreign countries
- Three principals have been designated as a National Cultural Policy which are, the national culture should be based on the original culture of the people of this region, other cultural elements that fit and be accepted as elements of national culture, and Islam is essential in the formation of national culture.
- Political power sharing undoubtedly creates unity in Malaysia.
- Prior to independence, leaders consisting of the three main races namely Malay, Chinese and Indian have understood power sharing is essential and was conducted fairly to avoid power misconduct and divisions.
- The top government positions, contesting candidates and election sets shouldn’t be dominated only by one ethnic. 
- National culture can also create a national identity that can be recognized by foreign countries
- Three principals have been designated as a National Cultural Policy which are, the national culture should be based on the original culture of the people of this region, other cultural elements that fit and be accepted as elements of national culture, and Islam is essential in the formation of national culture.
- All citizens who are eligible to vote can voice their opinions, criticisms and choose a candidate in the elections freely and fairly.

- The election winners can voice their opinions through established channels such as the Parliament.

- By giving the citizens the opportunity to elect the government, it can help to create unity as the citizens are able to vote in parties and candidates that promote unity and national integration in the country and vote out those racial political parties.

- When the citizens are satisfied that the government is democratically elected, they are not likely to join anti government protest and involve in acts that might cause racial disharmony in this country. - Among the approaches are; Initiating national ideology that is Rukun Negara , New Economic Policy, National Culture Policy, National Education Policy , Promoting the use of national language Political parties alliance , creating the Ministry for National Unity and community Development To organize and coordinate racial interaction programs through Rukun Tetangga, a scheme which is based on the spirit of neighborliness

- Malaysian education policy was established in a clear framework to unite the multi ethnic younger generation through the education system the Razak Report was commenced on 1956.

- This Report embodied the main ideology of Malaysian education policy to develop common, identity, and the national sense through the national education system.

- Amongst other means of building the nation was the use of national language in the mass education system

- To develop a kind of imagined Malaysian nation which is united sharing common identities and value Concept of Integration - the concept of integration is beyond language that is about reverence and indulgence of the other beliefs and culture

- whilst not commanding one group’s beliefs on others

- the imperative dimension for integration is acknowledgement of cultural diversity along
with peaceful relationships in culture and respect for varying ethnic sentiments

-understanding of multiculturalism in the Nation’s society

- take into consideration that integration is not obtained just through the language

- should not condemn other beliefs or values and over stress your own faith or religion

- political, social and economic lenience are also paramount criteria’s for building
ethnic integration

- vital factor for integration in relation to fair distribution of social and economic
resources and political rights across different ethnic groups Racial Integration - Integration is more than just speaking and communicating
with each other

- analyze and digest the different cultures in our society

- Integration is also about the willingness to co-operate

- because three ethnic groups are not in the even playing
field

- one has the upper hand of the other and if there is an actual
natural integration, than there is an indication of
willingness to give and take - When living in Malaysia, Malaysians would often refer to themselves based on their ethnic group such as – Malaysian Chinese and Indian or Malay. This has become so ingrained into society that Malaysians hardly ever notice this labelling of “race”. However when Malaysians are overseas, they identify themselves as being Malaysian and not with the suffixes of race used back home.

- Unity can be seen on an international stage such as the Olympics.
Sports unites people of different races

- This can be seen when all Malaysians regardless of race supported
Malaysia’s badminton hero, Lee Chong Wei and diving medallist,
Pandelela Rinong during the Olympics

- This shows that the people of Malaysia can indeed unite and come
together as one Malaysia instead of being divided into ethnic groups. Malaysia coming together, united under one banner Indian Food there is an abundant of Indian restaurants and food stalls to wet your appetite.

unique versions of local dishes such as "mee goreng“

Nasi Kandar, which is basically a combination of Malay and Indian cuisine.

Spices are the heart and soul of Indian cooking.

Bread is the main item in most meals in North Indian cuisine.

A wide variety of bread is offered at these restaurants.

Nann is a popular choice. Paratha or it is localized version of Roti Canai. Chapati is another type of leavened bread. Murtabak is stuffed Paratha based dough, which has a Meat, vegetables and egg in it.

Tandoori dishes are the most popular main courses in Malaysia Indian restaurants. Tandoori chicken is always a favorite, where a chicken quarter is roasted in the clay oven for several hours in advance and then finished off on the barbecue.
Malay Food Rice is the staple diet in any Malay meal. It is often served for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and supper too.

The most well-known dish from Malay meal is Nasi Lemak which taken from the ingredients of coconut milk used when cooking the rice and accompanied with curry chicken, sambal, ikan bilis and egg.

Most meals are eaten by using your fingers, and eating utensils are kept to a minimum. All dishes are served at the same time, accompanied by a refreshing drink.

Rice is the staple diet in any Malay meal. It is often served for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and supper too.

The most well-known dish from Malay meal is Nasi Lemak which taken from the ingredients of coconut milk used when cooking the rice and accompanied with curry chicken, sambal, ikan bilis and egg.

Most meals are eaten by using your fingers, and eating utensils are kept to a minimum. All dishes are served at the same time, accompanied by a refreshing drink.
One of the most unique Malay dishes is the "roti jala" which sometimes replaces the staple rice.

It is made from a mixture of plain flour and eggs, with a pinch of turmeric powder and butter.

Desserts are a must for any Malay meal. Malay desserts are invariably very sweet and include ingredients such as coconut milk, palm sugar, and flour.
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