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Cell Communication Project
Transcript of Cell Communication Project
AP Biology A
Mitchell CELL COMMUNICATION PROJECT Communication between two plant cells Chloroplasts, the plant cells responsible for photosynthesis, also communicate with the plant structure in times of distress. Communications between cells converge into one pathway that leads to a central "switch" of sorts that determines whether to shut down food production or not. This plant cell communication discovery was important because it demonstrated how outlying cells (chloroplasts) fed information to a nucleus about stressful conditions and the nucleus communicated that a slowdown in activity was required.
Most cells keep the bulk of their genetic code inside the nucleus. However, research has determined that some of this genetic material was also included in chloroplasts. Genes in the chloroplasts made it possible for these cells to decipher protein signals and know when to react to adverse conditions. CHLOROPLASTS AND THE NUCLEUS Individual plant cells communicate directly with one another through minute membrane-lined channels — plasmodesmata — which traverse the cell wall. Other less direct forms of communication orchestrate the coordination of growth and development of an individual cell with that of its neighbours. SUMMARY References
Individual plant cells interact so that the entire plant works towards a common goal. Plant cells need to share information for the plant to grow and develop. Communications between two plant cells also provides for the common defense of the plant against problems.
Plasmodesmata are complex and highly regulated structures act as tunnels from one plant cell to another. While animal cells are able to pass information cell-to-cell though flexible openings in cell walls called gap junctions, the cell walls of plants interfere. Thus, plasmodesmata enable information-encoded molecules to pass between cells. PLASMODESMATA PROTEINS Proteins regulate the flow of molecules between plant cells. Somehow, they work to prohibit some molecules from passing through plasmodesmata while allowing others to pass through. The exact method is still unknown. Genes in Chloroplasts
CELL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TWO IMMUNE SYSTEM CELLS The immune system responses depend on constant communication between the cells of the immune system so that each knows how to behave at any given time. A breakdown in communication can result in autoimmunity or immunopathology. WHITE BLOOD CELLS T-cells, a type of critical immune system cell, help destroy infected cells and coordinate the overall immune response. A molecule on its surface called the T-cell receptor interacts with MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules, which help T-cells recognize antigen fragments.
B-cells are known for making antibodies, which then bind to an antigen and mark the antigen for destruction by other immune system cells.
Macrophages and neutrophils circulate in the blood and search the body for foreign substances. When they find foreign antigens, such as bacteria, they engulf and destroy them, doing this by making toxic molecules such as reactive oxygen intermediate molecules. If production of these toxic molecules continues unchecked, not only are the foreign antigens destroyed, but tissues surrounding the macrophages and neutrophils are also destroyed. MHC molecules are an active part of the body's defense team. For example, MHC molecules to antigens when a virus infects a cell. Each MHC molecule that displays an antigen is recognized by a matching or compatible T-cell receptor. The antigen-presenting cell thus communicates with a T-cell about what may be occurring inside the cell. However, another molecule on the antigen-presenting cell must send a second signal to the T cell for the T cell to respond. A corresponding molecule on the surface of the T-cells recognizes the second signal. These two secondary molecules and the T-cell are called co-stimulatory molecules. SUMMARY Cells of the immune system communicate by cell-cell contact and through the production of soluble factors that bind cognate receptors expressed at the surface of target cells. Overall, R. (n.d.). Communication between plant cells. Retrieved from
Immune system communication. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/nri/focus/communication/index.html.
Shomon, M.J. (2012). Understanding autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid conditions. Retrieved from
The brain. (2010.). Retrieved from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN A NEURON AND ANOTHER NEURON SUMMARY There are four specialized regions of neurons that carry out different functions: the cell body, the dendrites, the axon, and the axon terminals. Each region has a role in the widespread transmission of information to and from the brain to be processed. Neurons are nerve cells that transmit nerve signals to and from the brain. There are many different types. They consist of a cell body with branching dendrites, and an axon. Axon terminals transmit the signal along a synapse, and myelin coats and insulates the axon, increasing transmission speed along the axon. PARTS OF A NEURON CELL BODY, AKA SOMA
-contains neuron’s nucleus with DNA and typical nuclear organelles
-branch from soma (cell body)
-signal receivers, bringing information to the cell body
-projection from cell
-conducts nerve signal and takes information away from the cell
-transmit the signal along a synapse (which is the gap between the axon terminal and cell receiving the signal)
-increases transmission speed of signal