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Changing Urban Environments

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on 23 March 2012

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Transcript of Changing Urban Environments

Changing Urban Environments
Place your own picture
behind this frame!
Double click to crop it if necessary
San Francisco
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
(cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr
(cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
photo frame
Urbanisation is a global phenomenon
Urban areas have a wide variety of functions and uses
There are aspects of urban living in a richer part of the world that need careful planning in order to support the population and environment of cities and towns.
Rapid urbanisation has led to the development of squatter settlements and an informal sector to the economy.
Rapid urbanisation in a poorer part of the world requires the management of the environmental problems caused.
Attempts can be made to ensure that urban living is sustainable.
Inner City
Rural-urban Fringe
Inner City
Improving the image of the CBD
Cultural Mix
Characteristics of squatter settlements
Effects of lives of people living in squatter settlements
Improving squatter settlements
Case study: Kibera
Effects of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation
Difficulties of disposal of waste
Air pollution
Water pollution
A sustainable city
Case Study: Curitiba
Causes of Urbanisation
Rural Urban Migration
Natural Increase
Push factors
Pull factors
Population Growth – the same amount of land has to support an increasing number of people.
Agricultural problems – desertification, land being subdivided into smaller plots due to systems of inheritance.
Disease and inadequate medical provision.
Land being used to grow cash crops not crops for local consumption.
Natural disasters
Informal sector.
Better quality social provisions.
Perceived better quality of life.
Some web links for you:
Urban growth in developed countries
Urban growth in developing countries
A process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities (and there is a reduction of people living in rural areas).
Towns and cities in the developed world grew rapidly during the Industrial Revolution. The was mainly in the 19th Century in Britain.
At the same time there was an Agricultural Revolution. New farm machinery meant less labour was needed on farms, so people moved to towns where there were pleanty of jobs available in new factories, mines and shipyards.
Urbanisation was happening
Growth was quite rapid, and there were enough jobs for people. Many mine and factory owners built houses for their workers.
Towns and cities continued to grow into the 20th century due to push and pull factors. This causes rural depopulation
As a result almost 90% of the UK population is now classified as urban.
Some large cities are now suffering from a loss of population as wealthy commuters and retired people are moving out of the city to live in small towns and villages.
Persistent urban growth in developing countries has led to a change in the distribution of the world's largest cities.
Why is this happening?
Rural to urban migration as a result of push and pull factors.
High fertility rates and high rates of natural increase.
Urban areas are places where industry and modern economic activities are located. This attracts young people looking for work.
Benefits of big cities to developing countries
Quality of life
People's incomes
Opportunities for employment
The CBD in the city centre is where most business and commerce is located.

High/multi-storey buildings.
Expensive land values.
Department stores or specialist shops, like jewellers.
Shopping malls and pedestrian precincts.
Cultural/historical buildings, museums and castles.
Offices, finance, banks, administration, town hall (business sector).
Bus and railway stations (transport centres).
Multi-storey car parks.
The CBD is located in the centre because it is:
a central location for road/railways to converge
the most accessible location for workers
accessible to most people for shops and businesses
The inner city is also known as the twilight zone.
It is typically found next to the CBD and has mainly terraced houses in a grid like pattern. These were originally built to house factory workers who worked in the inner city factories. Many of these factories have now closed down.
Unemployment and other socioeconomic problems have led to periods of unrest in many inner city areas, eg Toxteth in Liverpool.
Many inner city areas declined in the late 20th century and have undergone a period of regeneration in recent years, for example Watford Arches Retail Park, which is located on a former industrial site.
Run down terraced housing is often bought by investors and improved to appeal to young professionals who need access to the CBD. This is called gentrification.
Suburban houses are usually larger than inner city terraces and most have a garden.
Typically, they are detached or semi detached and the roads around them are arranged in cul de sacs and wide avenues. Land prices are generally cheaper than in the CBD and inner city, although the desirability of housing can make some areas expensive.
Many suburbs were built in the UK in the 1930s and have a distinctive style of housing.
More modern housing estates were built in the late 20th century as towns and cities have continued to grow.
Facilities such as schools, places of worship and parks are often present, and many are served by a local supermarket.
Suburban areas are often home to commuters who need access to the CBD along main roads and railways, and they are also within easy reach of the countryside.
This is found at the edge of a town or city and is where town meets country. It is common for this area to have a mixture of land uses such as some housing, golf courses, allotments, business parks and airports.
The mixture of land use often causes conflict as different groups have different needs and interests. For example, building Terminal 5 at Heathrow on the outskirts of London was a source of controversy. The need for another runway continues to cause conflicts of interest.
The Burgess Model
The UK is facing a housing crisis!
Total population is increasing
Total households are rising
More people now live alone
The Government aim to build 240,000 new houses every year by 2016 to ensuer that there isn't a shortage of housing.

Many of these new homes will be built in existing towns and cities and 60% will be built on brownfield sites. to save the countryside and its greenfield sites.
Advantages of building on brownfield sites
Advantages of building on greenfield sites
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Brownfield site: Land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city.
Greenfield site: land that has not been built on before, usually in the countrysude on the edge of the built up area.
Easier to get planning permission as councils want to see these sites used.
Sites in cities are not left empty or derelict.
Utilities such as water and electricity are already provided.
Roads already exist.
Near to facilities in town centres eg shops, entertainment and places of work.
Cuts commuting
New sites do not need clearing so can be cheaper to prepare.
No restrictions of existing road network.
Pleasant countryside environment may appeal to potential home owners.
Some shops and business parks on outskirts provide local facilities.
Land cheaper on outskirts so plots can be larger.
More space for gardens.
Case study: Smiths Flour Mill
Smiths Flour Mill launch will set the benchmark for Walsall residential conversions
One of Walsall's most historically significant Mill buildings is being brought back to life as a character rich apartment scheme that will set a benchmark for residential conversions in the town. The public launch will take place on Tuesday 16th May, which will be the first chance to buy one of the 122 new apartments.

Located on the junction of Wolverhampton Street and Adams Street, and idyllically sitting alongside the Birchills lock flight of the Walsall Canal, the impressive former flour mill building dates back to 1849. With milling continuing there until 1973 by Smith Brothers Walsall Ltd, the exterior and structure of the main Mill building has survived well; however, having lain derelict for a number of years, the interior of the building had fallen into a sorry state of repair and was ripe for conversion.

Family run niche Midlands development company GR8 Space Ltd has now commenced work on the build programme to redevelop the Smiths Flour Mill site and create Walsall's largest waterside apartment scheme. 122 contemporary apartments will be developed, mixing 45 loft style converted homes - located within the warehouse building - with 77 design-led newly built apartments.
"A significant amount of investment has been required to deliver a first class conversion which will re-introduce Smiths Flour Mill as one of Walsall's treasured historical landmarks. Working with, rather than against the original structure has enabled us to introduce solutions that maximise the living space and embrace the unique and charming features within the buildings.

"By combining early Victorian grandeur with a striking new building, Smiths Flour Mill will ultimately afford vying apartment dwellers a highly exclusive, yet low maintenance way of life in a canalside location that is rich in historical ambience. Providing 122 apartments, this is the by far Walsall's largest waterside scheme and it is set to take the town's apartment living trend to new heights."
Urban Development Corporations
City Challenge
Sustainable Communities
What are the problems with inner city areas?
Environmental Problems
Economic Problems
Social Problems
Housing is either old terraces or cheap tower blocks.
Shortage of poen space; most of what exists is wasteland.
Above average numbers of pensioners, single-parent familites, ethnic minorities and students.
Poorer than average levels of health, but higher than average levels of drug abuse and crime.
Difficult police-community relations
Local employment declined as industries and docklands closed.
Higher than average rates of unemployment.
Relatively high cost of land.
Low income and widespread poverty.
So what are the solutions?
A major strategy in the 1980s the improve inner city areas. There were 13 UDCs in total with the
London Docklands
Development Corporation being the most famous.

The UDCs were large scale projects where major changes occurred with the help of both public and private investment.
The aim of the LDDC was to regenerate it area by bringing land and buildings into effective use, encouraging the development of existing and new industry and commerce, creating an attractive environment and ensuring that housing and social facilities are available to encourage people to live and work in the area.
Before the LDDC
After the regeneration
The LDDC was at work for 17 years. Its achievements were:
£1.86 billion publin sector investment
£7.7 billion private sector investment
New and improved roads
Docklands Light Railway
Increased commercial and industrial space
24,000 new homes
2,700 businesses trading
5 new health center
11 new primary schools, 2 secondary schools
85,000 people now work in the Docklands
Local authorities, private companies and the local community worked together from the start of the regeneration.
Hulme, Manchester
Hulme City Challenge Partnership aimed to improve the 1960s housing of terraced crescents.
Hulme received £37.5 million through City Challenge.

Some old buildings were retained.
Homes were designed to be environmentally friendly.
A stretch of original houses were rebuilt.
Local school and a new park have been built.
Views of local peole were taken into account.
Initiative began in 2003, with the largest example being the transformation of an estate called Cardroom to the renamed
New Islington Millennium Village
Aims to enable people to live in an area where there is housing to enable people to enjoy a reasonable quality of life, access to a job, education and healthcare
66 houses
1,300 apartments
3km of canalside
Parks and gardens
Urban amenities
Community facilities
Sustainability agenda
Cardroom estate
The city centre is the most congested part of the city centre, partly due to its roads being laid out before the car was invented.

As the number of people increase alongside our demand for greater mobility so does the number of cars on the road.

Many households have more than one car.
Initial responses were to try to accommodate the traffic:
ring roads and bypasses
urban motorways and flyovers
multi-storey and underground car parks
one way traffic systems
Today the approach has shifted towards encouraging people to give up their cars and use public transport instead.
Transport for London have a range of methods to reduce traffic congestion within the capital. Have a look on their website to find out about:
Congestion charging
Oyster Cards
Boris' Bikes
The Underground
Overground rail
What measures have been put in place around Birmingham to reduce traffic congestion?
Exam question: Explain how and why the UK government is trying to alleviate the problems associated with increasing traffic on our roads.
Your task:

Research on the internet and use your text book to find answer to the traffic issues sheet that is on Moodle.
Find examples that you are familiar with.
Evaluate the success of one regeneration project in Birmingham.
What do you need to know to be able to answer this exam question?
On your own...Think about what you know to help you answer this question
Label your photo
What can you see?
Annotate your photo
Why do you think it has the characteristics that it does?
What questions do you want to find out the answers to?
Why was the new Bull Ring needed?
Explore the Geography of the Bull Ring through the following points...
Evaluate the success of one regeneration project in Birmingham.
Introduce your regeneration project
Justify your ideas.
Link back to the question
Walsall needs its own exact copy of the Bull Ring.
Record your answers on sheet number 1
Record your answers on your sheet
Suggested structure
Don't forget...
By the end of this lesson you should:
Be able to
describe a regeneration project in Birmingham.
identify its successes.
spot its weaknesses.
Have practiced your photo analysis skills
Working as a pair write your ideas down (one idea per piece of paper).

When the bell goes please can one of you come up to the front.
Sort your ideas into 3 categories.
Key Features
Why needed?
People's opinions
- Locals
- Businesses
- Westfield (they own Merry Hill)
- Any other key people.
Use the information about the room to help you - but not all of the answers are there!
Evaluate the success of one regeneration project in Birmingham.
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