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Presentation for EDFI 6420: Research in EducationThis presentation gives a brief overview about experimental designs for research. It covers what experimental designs are, when to use them, characteristics of an experiment, and factors to keep in mind wh

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on 23 September 2010

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Designs ................1900.........................1925..............................1950.................................1975.............................2000..................... Psychological experiments Procedure for comparing groups (McCall) Statistical Advancement
e.g. Chi-square & significance of difference Campbell and Stanley identify 15 types of experimental designs 1963 Types of basic designs and threats elaborated upon 1979 Experimental Design Timeline More complex and sophistocated experiments, involving many variables hello Servizo de Normalización Lingüística RANDOM ASSIGNMENT In an experiment you test an idea to determine whether it influences an outcome or dependent variable EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN PROCESS Determine if an experiment is the appropriate research approach for your study Determine activities with which to “experiment” Assign individuals to experience the experiment (and have some individuals experience something different) Determine whether those who experienced the activities (or practice or procedure) performed better on some outcome than those who did not experience the same thing Que é? How does it work? Quen o pode usar? 1. 2. 3. 4. We use experiments when we want to establish possible cause and effect between independent and dependent variables or when we have two or more groups to study THREATS TO VALIDITY Internal External History Maturation Regression Selection Mortality Interaction with selection Diffusion of treatments Compensatory equalization Compensatory rivalry Resentful demoralization Testing Instrumentation Interaction of selection and treatment Interaction of setting and treatment Interaction of history and treatment The degree to which the findings are generalizable to a population Problems that threaten our ability to draw correct cause-and-effect inferences that arise because of our procedures or participant experiences GROUP COMPARISONS Process of a researcher obtaining scores for individuals or groups on the dependent variable and comparing the means and variance both within the group and between the groups Phase 1: Relationship Picture Phase 2: Timeline Picture Phase 3: Statistical Comparisons Error Correction Treatment Spelling Accuracy Test 1 Test 2 Test 3
6 weeks 6 weeks 6 weeks

6 weeks 6 weeks 6 weeks

6 weeks 6 weeks 6 weeks Class A (control group) Class B
(comparison group) Class C
(experimental group) CONTROL OVER EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES Influences in the selection of participants, the procedures, the statistics, or the design likely to affect the outcome and provide an alternative explanation for our results than what was expected Pretests and Posttests PRETEST POSTTEST INTERVENTION Covariates No Covariate Covariate Introduced Independent Variable Dependent Variable Independent Variable Dependent Variable Covariate Variables that the researcher controls for using statistics and that relate to the dependent variable but that do not relate to the independent variable Matching of Participants This is the process of identifying one or more personal characteristics that influence the outcome and assigning individuals with that characteristic equally to the experimental and control groups MATCHING BASED ON GENDER Homogeneous Samples This is the process of selecting people who vary little in their personal characteristics Similar: Age Gender Racial Group GPA Degree Program Thus, these characteristics or attributes are controlled in the experiment Blocking Variables This is a variable the researcher controls before the experiment starts by dividing (or "blocking") the participants into subgroups (or categories) and analyzing the impact of each subgroup on the outcome The researcher forms homogeneous subgroups Then the investigator randomly assigns individuals to the control and experimental groups using each category of the variable 1. 2. The process of assigning individuals at random to groups or to different groups in an experiment Random assignment equates groups and distributes variability between or among groups and conditions Equating the groups Random selection Randomly selecting a sample from a population MANIPULATING
TREATMENT CONDITIONS Identify a treatment variable Identify the conditions (or levels) of the variable Manipulate the treatment conditions 1. 2. 3. -this is the independent variable -these are the levels of the independent variable -do something different for each condition EDFI 6420
Research in Education
Amanda Kochmit
Matt Priest
Lindsay Whitman Drewes
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