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Transcript of Medieval Theatre
lope de vega
lope de vega was a member of the spanish armada and later in life became a priest but by 1609 he had written 483 comedies. Some would estimate 1800 plays and by the time vega died it was said that he wrote 2 plays per week.
In his fourteen years in Paris, Moliere wrote 31 out of the 85 plays his troupe performed. In 1658, he had made his reputation in Paris and performed in front of King Louis XIV at the Louvre which was then for rent as a theater. Actually King Louis was the reason that french theater really came into its own.
The renaissance era was a time of growing knowledge for the poor and free thinking. this happened all through Europe during 1300-1600 A.C. The Renaissance started in Italy and the idea of humanism was that humans had the ability to do anything. The outcome was new thought about religion, life and theater. This is the time of Da'Vinci and Michelangelo, this was also the restart of manners in the modern world.
Jean-Baptise Poquelin, known by his stage name molier, is considered one of the greatest comedic masters of western literature. His most well known works are "The Misanthrope", The School For Wives", "The Imaginary Invalid" and "The Bourgeois Gentleman". He spent years as a traveling actor which allowed him to refine his comedic skills as he combined commedia dell'arte elements with the more refined french comedy.
French theater has a great history dating all the way back to the 12th century when the idea of dramatic performances for entertainment, not just for religious education was starting to emerge. Also many famous playwrights were discovered.
playwrights of spain
lope's most famous play was fventeoejuna that was first published in Madrid in 1619. His plays were clearly defined actions, arousing suspense, dealing with conflicting claims of love and honor .
Although he was the most popular playwright of his time he was never ranked with Shakespeare and never penetrated deeply into human life. Lope has even had minor playwrights
Pedro cal deron dela barca
Pedro was the second major playwright of Spain but just like Vega he became a priest. Pedro challenged Vega's preeminence and wrote mostly for the court theaters rather than the public theaters. He wrote 200 plays, his best secular plays came between 1622 and 1640. They were put into 2 categories.
Cope and sword-cope y espada
Revolving around men of miner rank dealing with intrigues and misunderstandings
Seriouse- dealing with jealousy
His most famous play was Life Is A Dream which was a philosophical allegory about the human situation and mystery in life.
Calderon's secular plays were usually short and light, based o classical myth.
Dafne wrote the first opera of its kind and giseppe verdi wrote aida and was famous for that opera. The italian theater had 3 basic settings: tragic-street of stately houses, comic- the common street's , and pastord-trees, hills, and cottages.
The people of italy were not only interested in the theater but also its architecture.
Filippo brunelleschi- Architecture of italian styled theatres
Leon roattista alberti- Wrote books about italian architecture.
Arlecchino is a very ancient character originated from German: Holle King (Hell King) Harlequin or Arlecchino in italian. His satanic nature during the years turned into more human features as cunning and ignore. In the middle ages he appears with demons that crowded holy representations, trying to exorcize the fear for supernatural, and finally comes to the stages of italian tumblers. Arlecchano thus became the best known mask of the "commedia dell arte", his costume is made be colored patched jacket and trousers. He's an acrobatic character. His face maintains the satanic and feline feature with a snub nose and has a lump on the forehead
This mask is a half mask often highly decorated with gold, silver, crystals and feathers. It is held up to the face by a baton or could be tied with ribbons . The Colombina mask was popularized by an early actress in the commedia dell'arte of the same name. They are mostly worn with dresses.
The Pulcinella is a mask (brown or black) with a long beak like nose and furrowed with wrinkles with a a big wart on the forehead. Worn with a white cloke type dress with black shoes and a white hat.
The Zanni costume usually white baggy clothing. Also are known to have a peaked hat and a wooden sword. At first the Zanni was a full faced mask but because the need of dialog when in a play, the bottom half was heightened and eventually cut away all together.The long noes shows the stupidity and is said that the longer the nose the dumber he is to be.
The renaissance plays performed at the faire originated during the Middle Ages with Latin dialogue spoken in the church. They were morality plays initiated by the politically powerful church to lure and control the masses. These religious and political dialogues matured into structured plays that were eventually moved out of the churches and into the streets and private estates.
Many of the early morality plays were shown before scene constructions representing well known landmarks. An elaborate castle representing Heaven often sat opposite a dragons mouth, with flames shooting out, which represented Hell. Street plays, Commedia del' Arte, were often staged on wagons, one scene on each wagon. The spectator stayed in one place and watched the various acts as the wagons pulled up in front of them.
The Renaissance theater of the nobility was comprised of elaborate spectacles, these stage spectacles, called masques, were performed in the ballrooms of courts with elaborate scenery and costumes. No expense was spared. Clouds floated around the ceiling, angels and cherubs went up and down. Magnificent chariots were drawn into view. The stories were supercilious, extolling only the joys of excess.
At the beginning of renaissance theater, three types of artificial light sources were used. The first, and probably the earliest light source, was the torch. The second was ceramic or metal oil lamps, with a wick protruding above the lip of the vessel, burning animal or vegetable oil. The third was tallow candies, which had been mass produced by molding since the 15th century.
The actors of the commedia represented fixed social types, for example, foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado. Characters such as Pantalone, the miserly merchant; Arlecchino , the mischievous servant from Bergamo, began as satires on italian "types" and became the archetypes of many of the favorite characters of the 17th- and 18th- century European theatre.
doesn't actually ware a mask but heavy make up , mascara and beauty spots for both sexes and could be a a half or full faced mask. the actor would have to be young, well set up, and attractive. Males usually wore soldier or cadet uniforms and girls wore dresses.
mask has a long hooked nose with bushy eyebrows, sometimes also a mustache. the character wares red tights with yellow shoes and a black cloak.
During this 72 year reign Known as the Golden Age because of its sudden wealth of french literature literature created in the 17th century century, thanks in part yo Louis Patronage, and this golden age literature still forms the french education and theater today.