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CMIN 201 (Sp '15) T08 - Applied Anthropology in Missions

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Hartmut Scherer

on 2 March 2015

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Transcript of CMIN 201 (Sp '15) T08 - Applied Anthropology in Missions

emic perspective
Applied Anthropology in Missions
*Highlighting some thoughts from chapter 7 of
Introduction to Global Missions
How is the way an insider thinks of his own culture called?
Terms Used in Cultural Anthropology
emic perspective
epic perspective
- unfair critique of other cultures
- suspend judgment
hot- or cold-climate cultures (Sarah Lanier)
Basic Culture Scales
Geert Hofstede's five dimensions
group oriented, relational, inclusion minded, indirect in their communication
individualism, direct communication, value privacy
Sherwood Lingenfelter
time and event orientation
dichotomistic and holistic thinking
task and person orientation
status and achievement focus
crisis and noncrisis orientation
concealment of vulnerability and willingness to expose vulnerability
Sources and Image Credits
Sherwood G. Lingenfelter and Marvin K. Mayers,
Ministering Cross-Culturally
(Baker, 2003), 34.
Richard Lewis
linear-active people
who are organized planners and do one thing at a time
cultures in Latin America and much of Africa that are people oriented and may do several activities at once, moving freely back and forth among them
respect-oriented, introverted listeners who prefer to respond rather than push their opinion first
Theology for Guilt, Shame, and Fear Cultures
Joyson Georges,
Theology for Guilt, Shame, and Fear Cultures
; accessed March 1, 2015; http://honorshame.com/theology-guilt-shame-fear-cultures-free-resource/.
Entering Another Culture
Duane Elmer, Cross-Cultural Connections (IVP, 2002), 66.
C1 – C6 Spectrum developed by John Travis (pseudonym); accessed March 1, 2015; http://thepeopleofthebook.org/C1-C6_Spectrum.html.
John Travis describes this spectrum as follows:

The C1 - C6 Spectrum compares and contrasts types of "Christ-centered communities" (groups of believers in Christ) found in the Muslim world. The six types in the spectrum are differentiated by language, culture, worship forms, degree of freedom to worship with others, and religious identity. All worship Jesus as Lord and core elements of the gospel are the same from group to group. The spectrum attempts to address the enormous diversity which exists throughout the Muslim world in terms of ethnicity, history, traditions, language, culture, and, in some cases, theology. This diversity means that myriad approaches are needed to successfully share the gospel and plant Christ-centered communities among the world's one billion followers of Islam. The purpose of the spectrum is to assist church planters and Muslim background believers to ascertain which type of Christ-centered communities may draw the most people from the target group to Christ and best fit in a given context. All of these six types are presently found in some part of the Muslim world.

(Evangelical Missions Quarterly (October, 1998): 407 - 408)
Contextualization in Muslim Settings (C1-C6)
A brief summary of each Christ-centered community described in the spectrum
Missionaries establish a church that is basically identical to wherever they are from. Services are conducted in the language of the missionaries. They call themselves "Christians" and have very little cultural connection to the region where they plant the church.
The same as C1, except the services are conducted in the language of the region.
They have incorporated many non-religious cultural forms of the region into their community, such as dress, art, etc. They still reject any purely Islamic religious elements. They may meet in a traditional church building or in a more religiously neutral location. They call themselves "Christians" but try to have a more contextualized presence in the region.
They are similar to C3, but they incorporate some Islamic religious elements into their community – like avoiding pork, praying in a more Islamic style, using Islamic dress and employing Islamic terminology. They call themselves "Followers of Isa" or something similar. Their meetings are usually not held in traditional church buildings. They are not considered to be Muslims by the Muslim community.
They retain their legal and social identity within their Muslim community. They reject or reinterpret any part of Islamic practices and doctrine that contradict the Bible. They may or may not attend the mosque regularly, and they actively are involved in sharing their faith in Jesus with other Muslims. They may call themselves Muslims who follow Isa al-Masih, or just Muslims. They may be viewed by their community as Muslims that are a little unorthodox.
They keep their faith secret because of an extreme threat of persecution, suffering or legal retaliation. They may worship secretly in small groups. They do not normally share their faith openly and have a 100% Muslim identity.
Hiebert suggests that the missionary study to exegete the culture; i.e., seek to know it and understand what they are doing and why they are doing what they do.
Four Step Process of Critical Contextualization
Step #1:
Step #2:
Step #3:
Step #4:
(Paul Hiebert)
Study the Word of God, note where God (not your home church necessarily) speaks to some cultural practice as sinful.
Study the passage in the hermeneutical community of fellow believers and then lead them to see what God says about this practice and challenge them to face it in light of his Word.
Guide them into a new contextualized practice that will serve as a functional substitute for the sinful practice.
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